Mental Illness and Length of Inpatient Stay for Medicaid Recipients with AIDS

Authors

  • Donald R. Hoover,

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    • Address correspondence to Donald R. Hoover, Ph.D., Institute for Health, Health Care Policy, and Aging Research, Rutgers University, 30 College Avenue, New Brunswick, NJ 08901. Dr. Hoover is also with the Department of Statistics, Rutgers University. Usha Sambamoorthi, Ph.D., James T. Walkup, Ph.D., and Stephen Crystal, Ph.D., are with the Institute for Health, Health Care Policy, and Aging Research, Rutgers University.

  • Usha Sambamoorthi,

  • James T. Walkup,

  • Stephen Crystal


  • This research was supported by grants R01 MH60831, P30 MH43450, P20 HS11825, R03 HS09566-0, EIA 02-05116, and R03 AG15166-01. The findings and opinions reported here are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of any other individuals or organizations. The authors wish to acknowledge research assistance and technical support provided by Ms. Michelle Kennedy and Ms. Emily Peterson, and to thank the New Jersey Division of Health and Senior Services and the New Jersey Department of Human Services for their cooperation in making data available.

Abstract

Objective. To examine the associations between comorbid mental illness and length of hospital stays (LOS) among Medicaid beneficiaries with AIDS.

Data Source and Collection/Study Setting. Merged 1992–1998 Medicaid claims and AIDS surveillance data obtained from the State of New Jersey for adults with ≥1 inpatient stay after an AIDS diagnosis from 1992 to 1996.

Study Design. Observational study of 6,247 AIDS patients with 24,975 inpatient visits. Severe mental illness (SMI) and other less severe mental illness (OMI) diagnoses at visits were ascertained from ICD–9 Codes. About 4 percent of visits had an SMI diagnosis; 5 percent had an OMI diagnosis; 43 percent did not have a mental illness diagnosis, but were patients who had been identified as having an SMI or OMI history; and 48 percent were from patients with no identified history of mental illness.

Principal Findings. The overall mean hospital LOS was 12.7 days. After adjusting for measures of HIV disease severity and health care access in multivariate models, patients presenting with primary and secondary severe mental illness (SMI) diagnoses had ∼32 percent and ∼11 percent longer LOS, respectively, than did similar patients without a mental illness history (p<0.001 for each). But in these adjusted models of length of stay: (1) diagnosis of OMI was not related to LOS, and (2) in the absence of a mental illness diagnosed at the visit, an identified history of either SMI or OMI was also not related to LOS. In adjusted models of time to readmission for a new visit, current diagnosis of SMI or OMI and in the absences of a current diagnosis, history of SMI or OMI all tended to be associated with quicker readmission.

Conclusions. This study finds greater (adjusted) LOS for AIDS patients diagnosed with severe mental illness (but not for those diagnosed with less severe mental comorbidity) at a visit. The effect of acute severe mental illness on hospitalization time may be comparable to that of an acute AIDS opportunistic illness. While previous research raises concerns that mental illness increases LOS by interfering with treatment of HIV conditions, the associations here may simply indicate that extra time is needed to treat severe mental illnesses or arrange for discharge of afflicted patients.

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