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Keywords:

  • Dual eligibility;
  • managed care;
  • colorectal cancer screening;
  • administrative claims data

Objectives. To assess the disparities in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening between elderly dual Medicare–Medicaid enrollees (or duals), the most vulnerable subgroup of the Medicare population, and nonduals.

Data Sources/Study Setting. The 1999 Medicare Denominator File, the Medicare Outpatient Standard Analytic Files, and Physician Supplier Part B files. In addition, the 1998 Area Resource File was used as a source for county-level attributes.

Data Collection/Extraction Methods. CRC screening procedures for 1999—fecal occult blood test (FOBT), flexible sigmoidoscopy (FLEX), colonoscopy with FOBT and/or FLEX (COL-WFF), and colonoscopy only (COL-ONLY)—were extracted from claim records, using diagnostic and procedure codes. Duals (n=2.5 million) and nonduals (n=20.2 million) receiving their care through the fee-for-service system were identified from the Denominator file. Hierarchical logistic regression analysis was conducted to adjust for individual- and county-level characteristics.

Principal Findings. Compared with nonduals, duals were disproportionately represented by female, older-old, and minority individuals (respectively 74.4 versus 58.5 percent; 19.3 versus 10.8 percent; 35.7 versus 8.0 percent), and CRC screening was significantly lower in duals than in nonduals (5.1 versus 12.2 percent for FOBT adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 0.48, 95 percent confidence interval [CI]: 0.45–0.51); 0.7 versus 1.9 percent for FLEX, (AOR: 0.55, 95 percent CI: 0.49–0.61); 0.4 versus 0.8 percent for COL-WFF (AOR: 0.60, 95 percent CI: 0.54–0.67); and 1.8 versus 2.5 percent for COL-ONLY (AOR: 0.85, 95 percent CI: 0.80–0.89); p<.001 for all comparisons.

Conclusions. Duals are significantly less likely than nonduals to undergo CRC screening, even after adjusting for individual- and county-level covariates. Future studies should evaluate the contribution of comorbidity and low socioeconomic status to these disparities.