Address correspondence to Anita L. Stewart, Ph.D., Center for Aging in Diverse Communities, Medical Effectiveness Research Center for Diverse Populations, Institute for Health and Aging, University of California San Francisco, 3333 California Street, Suite 340, San Francisco, CA 94118-1944. Anna M. Nápoles-Springer, Ph.D., and Steven E. Gregorich, Ph.D., are with the Center for Aging in Diverse Communities, Medical Effectiveness Research Center for Diverse Populations, Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, CA, Jasmine Santoyo-Olsson, M.S. is with the Institute for Health & Aging, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA.
Interpersonal Processes of Care Survey: Patient-Reported Measures for Diverse Groups
Article first published online: 19 SEP 2006
Health Services Research
Volume 42, Issue 3p1, pages 1235–1256, June 2007
How to Cite
Stewart, A. L., Nápoles-Springer, A. M., Gregorich, S. E. and Santoyo-Olsson, J. (2007), Interpersonal Processes of Care Survey: Patient-Reported Measures for Diverse Groups. Health Services Research, 42: 1235–1256. doi: 10.1111/j.1475-6773.2006.00637.x
- Issue published online: 19 SEP 2006
- Article first published online: 19 SEP 2006
- Quality of care;
- measurement invariance;
- factorial invariance;
- physician-patient communication;
- physician-patient interaction
Objective. To create a patient-reported, multidimensional physician/patient interpersonal processes of care (IPC) instrument appropriate for patients from diverse racial/ethnic groups that allows reliable, valid, and unbiased comparisons across these groups.
Data Source/Data Collection. Data were collected by telephone interview. The survey was administered in English and Spanish to adult general medicine patients, stratified by race/ethnicity and language (African Americans, English-speaking Latinos, Spanish-speaking Latinos, non-Latino whites) (N=1,664).
Study Design/Methods. In this cross-sectional study, items were designed to be appropriate for diverse ethnic groups based on focus groups, our prior framework, literature, and cognitive interviews. Multitrait scaling and confirmatory factor analysis were used to examine measurement invariance; we identified scales that allowed meaningful quantitative comparisons across four race/ethnic/language groups.
Principal Findings. The final instrument assesses several subdomains of communication, patient-centered decision making, and interpersonal style. It includes 29 items representing 12 first-order and seven second-order factors with equivalent meaning (metric invariance) across groups; 18 items (seven factors) allowed unbiased mean comparison across groups (scalar invariance). Final scales exhibited moderate to high reliability.
Conclusions. The IPC survey can be used to describe disparities in interpersonal care, predict patient outcomes, and examine outcomes of quality improvement efforts to reduce health care disparities.