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Measuring Organizational Attributes of Primary Care Practices: Development of a New Instrument

Authors

  • Pamela A. Ohman-Strickland,

    1. Department of Family Medicine, UMDNJ-RWJMS, One World's Fair Drive, Somerset, NJ 08873
    2. Department of Biometrics, UMDNJ—School of Public Health, Piscataway, NJ
    3. Department of Family Medicine, UMDNJ—Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Somerset, NJ
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    • Address correspondence to Pamela A. Ohman-Strickland, Ph.D., Department of Family Medicine, UMDNJ-RWJMS, One World's Fair Drive, Somerset, NJ 08873. Dr. Ohman-Strickland is also with the Department of Biometrics, UMDNJ—School of Public Health, Piscataway, NJ. Dr. Ohman-Strickland, A. John Orzano, M.D., M.P.H., Karissa Hahn, M.P.H., Michelle Gibel, M.A., and Benjamin F. Crabtree, Ph.D., are with the Department of Family Medicine, UMDNJ—Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Somerset, NJ. Dr. Crabtree is also with the Department of Family Medicine, Center for Research in Family Practice and Primary Care, Cleveland, OH. Paul A. Nutting, M.D., M.S.P.H., is with the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO. Dr. Nutting is also with Center for Research Strategies, Denver, CO. W. Perry Dickinson, M.D., is with the Department of Family Medicine, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Aurora, CO. Jill Scott-Cawiezell, Ph.D., R.N., is with the Sinclair School of Nursing, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO. Dr. Crabtree is with the Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ and also with the Department of Epidemiology, UMDNJ—School of Public Health.

  • A. John Orzano,

    1. Department of Family Medicine, UMDNJ—Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Somerset, NJ
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  • Paul A. Nutting,

    1. University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO
    2. Center for Research Strategies, Denver, CO
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  • W. Perry Dickinson,

    1. Department of Family Medicine, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Aurora, CO
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  • Jill Scott-Cawiezell,

    1. Sinclair School of Nursing, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO
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  • Karissa Hahn,

    1. Department of Family Medicine, UMDNJ—Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Somerset, NJ
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  • Michelle Gibel,

    1. Department of Family Medicine, UMDNJ—Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Somerset, NJ
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  • Benjamin F. Crabtree

    1. Department of Family Medicine, UMDNJ—Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Somerset, NJ
    2. Department of Family Medicine, Center for Research in Family Practice and Primary Care, Cleveland, OH
    3. Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ
    4. Department of Epidemiology, UMDNJ—School of Public Health
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Abstract

Objective. To develop an instrument to measure organizational attributes relevant for family practices using the perspectives of clinicians, nurses, and staff.

Data Sources/Study Setting. Clinicians, nurses, and office staff (n=640) from 51 community family medicine practices.

Design. A survey, designed to measure a practices' internal resources for change, for use in family medicine practices was created by a multidisciplinary panel of experts in primary care research and health care organizational performance. This survey was administered in a cross-sectional study to a sample of diverse practices participating in an intervention trial. A factor analysis identified groups of questions relating to latent constructs of practices' internal resources for capacity to change. ANOVA methods were used to confirm that the factors differentiated practices.

Data Collection. The survey was administered to all staff from 51 practices.

Principal Findings. The factor analysis resulted in four stable and internally consistent factors. Three of these factors, “communication,”“decision-making,” and “stress/chaos,” describe resources for change in primary care practices. One factor, labeled “history of change,” may be useful in assessing the success of interventions.

Conclusions. A 21-item questionnaire can reliably measure four important organizational attributes relevant to family practices. These attributes can be used both as outcome measures as well as important features for targeting system interventions.

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