Address correspondence to Patricia W. Stone, R.N., M.P.H., Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Columbia University School of Nursing, 617 West 168th Street, New York, NY 10032. Cathy Mooney-Kane, M.P.H., Researcher, is with the Department of Community and Preventive Medicine, University of Rochester. Elaine L. Larson, R.N., Ph.D., C.I.C., Associate Dean of Research, Professor of Pharmaceutical and Therapeutic Research, and Diane K. Pastor, MBA, Doctoral Student, are with the Columbia University School of Nursing. Jack Zwanziger, Ph.D., Professor and Director, is with the Health Policy and Administration School of Public Health, University of IL at Chicago, Chicago, IL. Andrew W. Dick, Ph.D., Senior Economist, is with the Rand Corporation Pittsburgh, PA and is also Adjunct Professor, DCPM, University of Rochester.
Nurse Working Conditions, Organizational Climate, and Intent to Leave in ICUs: An Instrumental Variable Approach
Article first published online: 25 OCT 2006
Health Services Research
Volume 42, Issue 3p1, pages 1085–1104, June 2007
How to Cite
Stone, P. W., Mooney-Kane, C., Larson, E. L., Pastor, D. K., Zwanziger, J. and Dick, A. W. (2007), Nurse Working Conditions, Organizational Climate, and Intent to Leave in ICUs: An Instrumental Variable Approach. Health Services Research, 42: 1085–1104. doi: 10.1111/j.1475-6773.2006.00651.x
- Issue published online: 25 OCT 2006
- Article first published online: 25 OCT 2006
- organizational climate;
Objective. To investigate causes of nurse intention to leave (ITL) while simultaneously considering organizational climate (OC) in intensive care units (ICUs) and identify policy implications.
Data Sources/Study Setting. Data were obtained from multiple sources including nurse surveys, hospital administrative data, public use, and Medicare files. Survey responses were analyzed from 837 nurses employed in 39 adult ICUs from 23 hospitals located in 20 separate metropolitan statistical areas.
Study Design. We used an instrumental variable technique to assess simultaneously the relationship between OC and ITL. We estimated ordinary least squares and reduced form regressions to determine the extent of simultaneity bias as well as the sensitivity of our results to the instrumental variable model specification.
Principal Findings. Fifteen percent of the nurses indicated their ITL in the coming year. Based on the structural model, we found that nurses' ITL contributed little if anything directly to OC, but that OC and the tightness of the labor market had significant roles in determining ITL (p values <.05). Furthermore, OC was affected by the average regionally adjusted ICU wages, hospital profitability, teaching, and Magnet status (p values <.05).
Conclusions. OC is an important determinant of ITL among ICU nurses. Because higher wages do not reduce ITL, increased pay alone without attention to OC is likely insufficient to reduce nurse turnover. Implementing interventions aimed at creating a positive OC, as found in Magnet hospitals, may be a more effective strategy.