• Cash and Counseling;
  • consumer direction;
  • long-term care

Objective. To describe the key features of the first three Cash and Counseling demonstration programs and identify those which the programs have in common and those on which they differ.

Study Setting. Demonstration Cash and Counseling programs in Arkansas, Florida, and New Jersey.

Data Sources. Interviews with program staff and program materials and discussion.

Methods. Description and comparison.

Principal Findings/Conclusion. The three Cash and Counseling demonstration programs have many common features; these arose because they were required to adhere to the basic tenets of the Cash and Counseling model and to federal regulations, to share the philosophy of consumer empowerment, and to work together to design their programs. However, their programs also differ substantially due to differences in state goals, Medicaid programs, and political environments. These variations must be taken into account to understand differences in the impact of the three programs.