Address correspondence to Anthony D. Slonim, Executive Director, Center for Clinical Effectiveness, Attending Physician, Critical Care Medicine, Children's National Medical Center, Investigator, Children's Research Institute, Associate Professor and Vice Chairman, Pediatrics, The George Washington University School of Medicine, 111 Michigan Avenue, NW, Suite 3-100, Washington, DC. James P. Marcin, M.D., M.P.H., Associate Professor, Pediatrics, is with the University of California, Davis Children's Hospital, Sacramento, California. Wendy Turenne, Statistician, is with the Center for Clinical Effectiveness and Children's Research Institute, Children's National Medical Center, Washington, DC. Matt Hall, Senior Statistician, is with the Performance Improvement Division, Child Health Corporation of America, Shawnee Mission, KS. Jill G. Joseph, Professor, Pediatrics, Associate Program Director: GCRC, is with the University of California, Davis, Sacramento, CA.
Pediatric Patient Safety Events during Hospitalization: Approaches to Accounting for Institution-Level Effects
Article first published online: 27 APR 2007
Health Services Research
Volume 42, Issue 6p1, pages 2275–2293, December 2007
How to Cite
Slonim, A. D., Marcin, J. P., Turenne, W., Hall, M. and Joseph, J. G. (2007), Pediatric Patient Safety Events during Hospitalization: Approaches to Accounting for Institution-Level Effects. Health Services Research, 42: 2275–2293. doi: 10.1111/j.1475-6773.2007.00729.x
- Issue published online: 27 APR 2007
- Article first published online: 27 APR 2007
- Patient safety;
- patient safety indicators;
- hierarchial methods;
- large administrative databases;
- medical errors
Objective. To determine the rates, patient, and institutional characteristics associated with the occurrence of patient safety indicators (PSIs) in hospitalized children and the degree of statistical difference derived from using three approaches of controlling for institution level effects.
Data Source. Pediatric Health Information System Dataset consisting of all pediatric discharges (<21 years of age) from 34 academic, freestanding children's hospitals for calendar year 2003.
Methods. The rates of PSIs were computed for all discharges. The patient and institutional characteristics associated with these PSIs were calculated. The analyses sequentially applied three increasingly conservative methods to control for the institution-level effects robust standard error estimation, a fixed effects model, and a random effects model. The degree of difference from a “base state,” which excluded institution-level variables, and between the models was calculated. The effects of these analyses on the interpretation of the PSIs are presented.
Principal Findings. PSIs are relatively infrequent events in hospitalized children ranging from 0 per 10,000 (postoperative hip fracture) to 87 per 10,000 (postoperative respiratory failure). Significant variables associated PSIs included age (neonates), race (Caucasians), payor status (public insurance), severity of illness (extreme), and hospital size (>300 beds), which all had higher rates of PSIs than their reference groups in the bivariable logistic regression results. The three different approaches of adjusting for institution-level effects demonstrated that there were similarities in both the clinical and statistical significance across each of the models.
Conclusions. Institution-level effects can be appropriately controlled for by using a variety of methods in the analyses of administrative data. Whenever possible, resource-conservative methods should be used in the analyses especially if clinical implications are minimal.