SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • Adamson, D. M., S. Chang, and L. G. Hansen. 2006. “Health Research Data for the Real World: The Marketscan Databases.” White Paper, Research and Pharmaceutical Division, Thomson Medstat, January.
  • Briesacher, B., S. Kamal-Bahl, M. Hochberg, D. Orwig, and K. H. Kahler. 2004. “Three-Tiered Copayment Drug Coverage and Use of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs. Archives of Internal Medicine 164 (15): 167984.
  • Congressional Budget Office. 2004 “A Detailed Description of CBO's Cost Estimate for the Medicare Prescription Drug Benefit.” July.
  • Congressional Budget Office. 2005 “Letter to Honorable Joe Barton, Chairman, Committee on Energy and Commerce, U.S. House of Representatives.” March 4.
  • Fairman, K. A., B. R. Motheral, and R. R. Henderson. 2003. “Retrospective, Long-Term Follow-up Study of the Effect of a Three-Tiered Prescription Drug Copayment System on Pharmaceutical and Other Medical Utilization and Cost. Clinical Therapeutics 25 (12): 314761.
  • Federal Register. 2005 “Medicare Prescription Drug Benefit; Final Rule; 42 CFR Parts 400, 403, 411, 417, and 423.” Volume 70, Number 18, January 28.
  • Gaynor, M., J. Li, and W. B. Vogt. 2006 “Is Drug Coverage a Free Lunch? Cross-Price Elasticities and the Design of Prescription Drug Benefits.” NBER Working Paper No. 12758, December.
  • Gibson, T. B., T. L. Mark, K. A. McGuigan, K. Axelsen, and S. Wang. 2006. “The Effects of Prescription Drug Copayments on Statin Adherence. American Journal of Managed Care 12 (9): 50917.
  • Gibson, T. B., C. G. McLaughlin, and D. G. Smith. 2005a. “A Copayment Increase for Prescription Drugs: The Long-Term and Short-Term Effects on Use and Expenditures. Inquiry 42 (3): 293310.
  • Gibson, T. B., R. J. Ozminkowski, and R. Z. Goetzel. 2005b. “The Effects of Prescription Drug Cost Sharing: A Review of the Evidence. American Journal of Managed Care 11 (11): 73040.
  • Gilman, B. H., and J. Kautter. 2007. “Consumer Response to Dual Incentives under Multi-Tiered Prescription Drug Formularies. American Journal of Managed Care 13 (6, pt. 2): 3539.
  • Gleason, P. P., B. W. Gunderson, and K. R. Gericke. 2005. “Are Incentive-Based Formularies Inversely Associated with Drug Utilization in Managed Care? Annals of Pharmacotherapies 39 (2): 33945.
  • Goldman, D. P., G. F. Joyce, J. J. Escarce, P. E. Pace, M. D. Solomon, M. Laouri, P. B. Landsman, and S. M. Teutsch. 2004. “Pharmacy Benefits and the Use of Drugs by the Chronically Ill. Journal of the American Medical Association 291 (19): 234450.
  • Goldman, D. P., G. F. Joyce, and J. D. Malkin. 2002 “The Costs of a Medicare Prescription Drug Benefit: A Comparison of Alternatives.” Rand MR-1529.0-NIA, January.
  • Hoadley, J. 2005. “The Effect of Formularies and Other Cost Management Tools on Access to Medications: An Analysis of the MMA and the Final Rule.” Kaiser Family Foundation. March.
  • Huskamp, H. A., P. A. Deverka, A. M. Epstein, R. S. Epstein, K. A. McGuigan, and R. G. Frank. 2003. “The Effect of Incentive-Based Formularies on Prescription Drug Utilization and Spending. New England Journal of Medicine 349 (23): 222432.
  • Huskamp, H. A., R. G. Frank, K. A. McGuigan, and Y. Zhang. 2005. “The Impact of a Three-Tier Formulary on Demand Response for Prescription Drugs. Journal of Economics and Management Strategy 14 (3): 72953.
  • Joyce, G. F., J. J. Escarce, M. D. Solomon, and G. P. Goldman. 2002. “Employer Drug Benefit Plans and Spending on Prescription Drugs. Journal of the American Medical Association 288 (14): 17339.
  • Kamal-Bahl, S., and B. Briesacher. 2004. “How Do Incentive-Based Formularies Influence Drug Selection and Spending for Hypertension? Health Affairs 23 (1): 22736.
  • Lillard, L. A., J. Rogowski, and R. Kington. 1999. “Insurance Coverage for Prescription Drugs: Effects on Use and Expenditures in the Medicare Population. Medical Care 37 (9): 92636.
  • Medicare Payment Advisory Commission. 2006 “Report to Congress: Increasing the Value of Medicare.” June.
  • Motheral, B. R., and K. A. Fairman. 2001. “Effect of Three-Tier Prescription Copay on Pharmaceutical and Other Medical Utilization. Medical Care 39 (12): 1293304.
  • Nair, K. V., P. Wolfe, R. J. Valuck, M. M. McCollum, J. M. Ganther, and S. J. Lewis. 2003. “Effects of a Three-Tier Pharmacy Benefit Design on the Prescription Purchasing Behavior of Individuals with Chronic Diseases. Journal of Managed Care Pharmacy 9 (2): 12333.
  • Pauly, M. V. 2004. “Medicare Drug Coverage and Moral Hazard. Health Affairs 23 (1): 11322.
  • Pope, G. C., J. Kautter, R. P. Ellis, A. S. Ash, J. Z. Ayanian, L. I. Iezzoni, M. J. Ingber, J. M. Levy, and J. Robst. 2004. “Risk Adjustment of Medicare Capitation Payments Using the CMS-HCC Model. Health Care Financing Review 25 (4): 11941.
  • Rector, T. S., M. D. Finch, P. M. Danzon, M. V. Pauly, and B. S. Manda. 2003. “Effect of Tiered Prescription Copayment on the Use of Preferred Brand Medications. Medical Care 41 (3): 398406.
  • Roblin, D. W., R. Platt, M. J. Goodman, J. Hsu, W. W. Nelson, D. H. Smith, S. Andrade, and S. B. Soumerai. 2005. “Effect of Increased Cost Sharing on Oral Hypoglycemic Use in Five Managed Care Organizations: How Much Is Too Much? Medical Care 43 (10): 9519.
  • Thomas, C. P., S. S. Wallack, S. Lee, and G. A. Ritter. 2002. “Impact of Health Plan Design and Management on Retirees' Prescription Drug Use and Spending, 2001. Health Affairs (Web Exclusive): W40819.