• Program structure;
  • organizational functioning;
  • outpatient substance abuse treatment;
  • counselor–client contact;
  • caseload

Objectives. To examine organizational structural attributes associated with counselor–client contact.

Data Sources. Data were collected in 2004 and 2005 for a federally funded project, which simultaneously examines organizational structure, functioning, and resources among outpatient substance abuse treatment programs.

Study Design. The study uses a naturalistic design to investigate organizational structure measures—ownership, accreditation, and supplemental services—as predictors of time in counseling and case management, and caseload size, controlling for geographic differences.

Data Collection. Directors at 116 outpatient drug-free treatment programs located in four regions across the U.S. (Great Lakes, Gulf Coast, Northwest, and Southeast) voluntarily completed a survey about program structure.

Primary Findings. Clients received more counseling hours in programs that were “intensive,” publicly owned, accredited, and had a lower proportion of recently hired counselors. More case management hours were offered in “intensive,” private-for-profit or publicly owned (versus private-nonprofit) programs, serving a lower proportion of dual-diagnosis clients, and providing more on-site supplemental services. Smaller caseloads were found in programs that were accredited and had a smaller average client census and a lower proportion of criminal justice referred clients.

Conclusions. Organizational attributes are related to counselor–client contact and may have implications for staff turnover and service quality.