Development of a Measure of Physician Engagement in Addressing Racial and Ethnic Health Care Disparities

Authors

  • G. Caleb Alexander,

    1. The University of Chicago, 5841 S. Maryland, MC 2007, Chicago, IL 60637,
    2. MacLean Center for Clinical Medical Ethics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL,
    3. Department of Medicine, University of Chicago Hospitals, Chicago, IL,
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    • Address correspondence to G. Caleb Alexander, M.D., M.S., The University of Chicago, 5841 S. Maryland, MC 2007, Chicago, IL 60637. Dr. Alexander and Matthew K. Wynia, M.D., M.P.H., are with the MacLean Center for Clinical Medical Ethics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL. Dr. Alexander and Maliha Sayla, B.A., are with the Department of Medicine, University of Chicago Hospitals, Chicago, IL. Shang Lin, Ph.D., Research Associate (Associate Professor), is with the Division of Biological Science, Department of Health Studies, Chicago, IL. Matthew K. Wynia, M.D., M.P.H., is the Director of the Institute for Ethics, American Medical Association, Chicago, IL and also with the Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Chicago Hospitals, Chicago, IL.

  • Shang Lin,

    1. Division of Biological Science, Department of Health Studies, Chicago, IL
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  • Maliha A. Sayla,

    1. Department of Medicine, University of Chicago Hospitals, Chicago, IL,
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  • Matthew K. Wynia

    1. MacLean Center for Clinical Medical Ethics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL,
    2. American Medical Association, Chicago, IL
    3. Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Chicago Hospitals, Chicago, IL
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Abstract

Objective. To develop a measure of physician engagement in addressing health care disparities.

Data Sources/Study Design. Cross-sectional survey of a national sample of physicians assessing each hypothesized component of engagement (Awareness, Reflection/Empowerment, and Action [AREA]).

Data Collection/Extraction Methods. Results examined using factorial analysis; predictive validity of final scale examined among highly engaged physicians.

Principal Findings. A nine-item scale derived from the AREA model has face validity, content validity, and applicability to a diverse group of physicians in measuring engagement. Partial correlations confirmed the mediating role of Reflection and/or Empowerment between Awareness and Action. Use of the scale among expert physicians suggests it reliably detects highly engaged physicians.

Conclusions. A nine-item survey can measure physician engagement in addressing health care disparities.

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