Address correspondence to Liane R. Ginsburg, Ph.D., Associate Professor, School of Health Policy and Management, Faculty of Health, York University, HNES Building 413, 4700 Keele Street, Toronto, ON, Canada M3J 1P3; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Debra Gilin, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, and Mark Fleming, Ph.D., Associate Professor, are with the Department of Psychology, Saint Mary's University, Halifax, NS, Canada. Deborah Tregunno, R.N., Ph.D., Assistant Professor, is with the School of Nursing, Faculty of Health, York University, Toronto, ON, Canada. Peter G. Norton, M.D., C.C.F.P, F.C.F.P., Professor, is with the Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Calgary, AB, Canada. Ward Flemons, M.D., F.R.C.P.C., F.A.C.P., Vice-President, is with the Quality Safety and Health Information, Calgary Health Region and is also Clinical Professor of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.
Advancing Measurement of Patient Safety Culture
Article first published online: 24 SEP 2008
© Health Research and Educational Trust
Health Services Research
Volume 44, Issue 1, pages 205–224, February 2009
How to Cite
Ginsburg, L., Gilin, D., Tregunno, D., Norton, P. G., Flemons, W. and Fleming, M. (2009), Advancing Measurement of Patient Safety Culture. Health Services Research, 44: 205–224. doi: 10.1111/j.1475-6773.2008.00908.x
- Issue published online: 15 JAN 2009
- Article first published online: 24 SEP 2008
- Patient safety culture measurement;
- patient safety climate measurement;
- culture strength;
- modified Stanford safety culture survey
Objective. To examine the psychometric and unit of analysis/strength of culture issues in patient safety culture (PSC) measurement.
Data Source. Two cross-sectional surveys of health care staff in 10 Canadian health care organizations totaling 11,586 respondents.
Study Design. A cross-validation study of a measure of PSC using survey data gathered using the Modified Stanford PSC survey (MSI-2005 and MSI-2006); a within-group agreement analysis of MSI-2006 data.
Extraction Methods. Exploratory factor analyses (EFA) of the MSI-05 survey data and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of the MSI-06 survey data; Rwg coefficients of homogeneity were calculated for 37 units and six organizations in the MSI-06 data set to examine within-group agreement.
Principal Findings. The CFA did not yield acceptable levels of fit. EFA and reliability analysis of MSI-06 data suggest two reliable dimensions of PSC: Organization leadership for safety (α=0.88) and Unit leadership for safety (α=0.81). Within-group agreement analysis shows stronger within-unit agreement than within-organization agreement on assessed PSC dimensions.
Conclusions. The field of PSC measurement has not been able to meet strict requirements for sound measurement using conventional approaches of CFA. Additional work is needed to identify and soundly measure key dimensions of PSC. The field would also benefit from further attention to strength of culture/unit of analysis issues.