Address correspondence to Michael Davern, Ph.D., Vice President, Director of Public Health Research, NORC at the University of Chicago, 55 E. Monroe, Suite 3000, Chicago, IL 60603; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Donna McAlpine, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Todd Rockwood, Ph.D., Associate Professor, and Kathleen Thiede Call, Ph.D., Associate Professor, are with the Division of Health Policy and Management, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN. Timothy J. Beebe, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Health Services Research, and Jeanette Ziegenfuss, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Health Services Research, are with the Division of Health Care Policy and Research, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN.
Are Lower Response Rates Hazardous to Your Health Survey? An Analysis of Three State Telephone Health Surveys
Article first published online: 22 JUN 2010
© Health Research and Educational Trust
Health Services Research
Volume 45, Issue 5p1, pages 1324–1344, October 2010
How to Cite
Davern, M., McAlpine, D., Beebe, T. J., Ziegenfuss, J., Rockwood, T. and Call, K. T. (2010), Are Lower Response Rates Hazardous to Your Health Survey? An Analysis of Three State Telephone Health Surveys. Health Services Research, 45: 1324–1344. doi: 10.1111/j.1475-6773.2010.01128.x
- Issue published online: 9 SEP 2010
- Article first published online: 22 JUN 2010
- Health survey;
- response rates;
- health insurance;
- survey methods;
- drug use;
- health care access
Objective. To examine the impact of response rate variation on survey estimates and costs in three health telephone surveys.
Data Source. Three telephone surveys of noninstitutionalized adults in Minnesota and Oklahoma conducted from 2003 to 2005.
Study Design. We examine differences in demographics and health measures by number of call attempts made before completion of the survey or whether the household initially refused to participate. We compare the point estimates we actually obtained with those we would have obtained with a less aggressive protocol and subsequent lower response rate. We also simulate what the effective sample sizes would have been if less aggressive protocols were followed.
Principal Findings. Unweighted bivariate analyses reveal many differences between early completers and those requiring more contacts and between those who initially refused to participate and those who did not. However, after making standard poststratification adjustments, no statistically significant differences were observed in the key health variables we examined between the early responders and the estimates derived from the full reporting sample.
Conclusions. Our findings demonstrate that for the surveys we examined, larger effective sample sizes (i.e., more statistical power) could have been achieved with the same amount of funding using less aggressive calling protocols. For some studies, money spent on aggressively pursuing high response rates could be better used to increase statistical power and/or to directly examine nonresponse bias.