Dogs and cats receiving cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) were evaluated for factors leading to cardiac arrest and for survival following the procedure. One-hundred-thirty-five canine and forty-three feline patients seen at the University of California, Davis Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital that received CPR between August 1987 and December 1991 were studied. Initial resuscitation attempts were unsuccessful in 72% of dogs and 58% of cats. Five dogs and one cat were still alive 3 days after CPR. Ultimately only four dogs and one cat were discharged from the hospital alive. These five patients with uniquely longer survival all had cardiac arrests associated with drug and/or anesthetic reactions.