• pleural effusion;
  • pricardiocentesis;
  • echocardiography


Objective:To describe the diagnosis and treatment of a pregnanat llama with perticardlts.

Summary:A 2-year-old female llama presented for lethargy of several days' duration. Partinent physical examination findings included tachycardia. muffled heart sounds, tachpnea and lethargy. Electrocardiography revealed tachycardia, second-degree AV block and electrical alternans. Echocardiography confirmed the presence of pericardial effusion and cardiac compromise. Thoracic sonogram revealed pleural effusion. Treatment included intravenous fluids, systemic antimicrobials, systemic anti-inflammatories, thoracocentesis and eventual pericardiocentesis with daily drainage and lavage. No etiological agent was identified. The llama reponded well to therapy well to therapy and a 3.5-month and 2-year follow-up revealed no cardiac problems.

New information provided:This is the first case report of pericarditis in a llama with treatment and a favorable outcome.