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Keywords:

  • ocular emergency;
  • carbonic anhydrase inhibitors;
  • prostaglandin analogues;
  • goniodysgenesis;
  • cycloablation

Abstract

Objective: Glaucoma is an optic nerve disease that may result in rapid loss of vision. Early detection of acute glaucoma and aggressive treatment is important to preserve vision. Continued treatment is indicated in chronic glaucoma to alleviate discomfort associated with chronic elevated intraocular pressure.

Etiology: In primary glaucoma, an abnormal iridocorneal angle results in obstruction to outflow of aqueous humor. In secondary glaucoma, an otherwise normal iridocorneal angle is obstructed by abnormalities such as a luxated lens, neovascular membranes or inflammatory material.

Diagnosis: The diagnosis is made by a combination of clinical signs such as corneal edema, mydriasis, decreased vision, episcleral hyperemia, and confirmed by measuring an elevation in intraocular pressure. Complete ophthalmic examination, knowledge of breed predisposition to various ocular diseases and gonioscopy will aid in distinguishing between primary and secondary glaucoma

Therapy: Aggressive medical management is important in acute glaucoma. Surgical procedures are often indicated after initial emergency medical treatment of acute glaucoma. Chronic, painful blind eyes are best treated with one of various surgical procedures.

Prognosis: The prognosis for maintaining vision or regaining temporarily lost vision in acute glaucoma is related to numerous factors including time between onset of clinical signs and appropriate treatment, etiology of the glaucoma, initial response to therapy and client compliance.