• CPCR;
  • CPR;
  • DNAR;
  • DNR;
  • emotions;
  • stress


Objective: To examine the impact of stress on veterinarians resulting from both the provision of cardiopulmonary–cerebral resuscitation (CPCR) and the discussion of CPCR and do not attempt resuscitation (DNAR) with affected clients.

Design: Descriptive cross-sectional with survey methodology.

Setting: Eight colleges of veterinary medicine in the United States.

Subjects: Two hundred and one academic veterinarians.

Interventions: The survey was distributed by the authors to small animal faculty, residents, and interns. Demographic variables and Likert-style questions about comfort discussing and performing CPCR and affective impact of CPCR events were included. Multiple linear regression models were constructed to determine the effect of the questions on different target variables of interest.

Measurements and Main Results: Ninety-six percent of veterinarians experienced stress when performing CPCR and reported that positive emotions after a successful CPCR were statistically greater than the negative emotions of an unsuccessful CPCR. Veterinarians trained in CPCR reported lower scores for stress and negative emotional impact from a failed CPCR.

Conclusions: Veterinarians experience stress during CPCR and when discussing CPCR and DNAR choices with owners. Steps can be taken to reduce the likelihood of having a negative affect from CPCR efforts, such as improved training of CPCR supervisors and increased competence of CPCR supervisors.