• osmolar concentration;
  • osmotic pressures;
  • sodium


Objective: To determine a reference interval of whole blood and plasma osmolalities for dogs using the Advanced Micro Osmometer Model 3300, to compare calculated osmolarity to measured osmolality, to determine a reference osmole gap, and to determine the best formula for calculated osmolaity.

Design: Prospective, observational.

Setting: Tertiary referral and teaching hospital.

Animals: One hundred healthy adult dogs.

Interventions: None.

Measurements: Serum and whole blood biochemistry and osmolality assessments.

Results: The mean and median of the measured whole blood osmolality were 323 and 320 mOsm/kg, respectively, with a standard deviation of 13.2 mOsm/kg. The mean and median of the measured plasma osmolality were 313 and 310 mOsm/kg, respectively, with a standard deviation of 13.2 mOsm/kg. The formula that was closest to predicting the measured whole blood and plasma osmolality was ((1.86(Na+K))+(BUN/2.8)+(Glucose/18))/0.93 followed closely by the traditional formula of (2(Na+K))+(BUN/2.8)+(Glucose/18). The mean calculated osmolarities using these formulas were 314.1 and 313.25 mOsm/L, respectively. The mean osmole gap using these formulas was 3.49 and 4.41 mOsm, respectively, for whole blood and −2.01 and −1.1 mOsm, respectively, for plasma.

Conclusion: The Advanced Micro Osmometer Model 3300 was successful in measuring the osmolality in relative agreement with the current published reference intervals for osmolality. Measured osmolality correlated well with traditional calculated osmolarity.