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Determination of cardiac output in neonatal foals by ultrasound velocity dilution and its comparison to the lithium dilution method

Authors

  • Andre Shih DVM,

    1. Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610,
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  • Steeve Giguère DVM, PhD, DACVIM,

    1. Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610,
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  • L. Chris Sanchez DVM, PhD, DACVIM,

    1. Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610,
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  • Alexander Valverde DVM, DVSc, DACVA,

    1. Department of Clinical Studies, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1
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  • Carsten Bandt DVM, DACVECC,

    1. Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610
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  • Hope Jankunas BS,

    1. Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610,
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  • Sheilah Robertson BVMS, PhD, MRCVS, DECVA, DACVA

    1. Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610,
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  • Supported by the State of Florida Pari-Mutuel Wagering Trust Fund and the Florida Thoroughbred Breeders' and Owner Association.
    Presented in abstract form at Pediatric Cardiology Intensive Care Symposium Miami, FL, 2009.
    The authors report no conflicts of interest.

Address correspondence and reprint requests to
Dr. Andre Shih, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, PO Box 100136, Gainesville, FL 32610-0136, USA.Email: shiha@vetmed.ufl.edu

Abstract

Objective – To compare cardiac output (CO) measured by use of lithium dilution (LiDCO) and ultrasound velocity dilution (UDCO) in conditions of high, intermediate, and low CO in anesthetized foals.

Design – Original prospective study.

Setting – University teaching hospital.

Animals – Six foals 1–3 days of age (38–45 kg).

Interventions – Neonatal foals were anesthetized and instrumented to measure direct blood pressure, heart rate, arterial blood gases, and CO. The CO was measured by use of LiDCO and UDCO techniques. Measurements were obtained from each foal at baseline and during low, intermediate, and high CO states. Measurements were converted to cardiac index (cardiac index=CO/body weight) values for statistical analysis. Agreement between the 2 methods was determined using Bland and Altman analysis and concordance correlation coefficients.

Measurements and Main Results – LiDCO determinations of CO ranged between 4.0 and 14.0 L/min resulting in cardiac index ranging between 75.5 and 310 mL/kg/min. There was no significant effect of blood pressure variation on bias or relative bias (P=0.62 and 0.93, respectively). The mean bias and relative bias of UDCO (±SD) compared with LiDCO were −20.1±39.2 mL/kg/min and −7.7±23.4%, respectively. Concordance correlation coefficient between LiDCO and UDCO was 0.833.

Conclusions – When compared with LiDCO, the UDCO technique has acceptable clinical utility for measuring CO in healthy anesthetized newborn foals.

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