The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
Comparison of fluid types for resuscitation after acute blood loss in mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos)
Article first published online: 11 SEP 2009
© Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2009
Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
Volume 19, Issue 5, pages 467–472, October 2009
How to Cite
Lichtenberger, M., Orcutt, C., Cray, C., Thamm, D. H., DeBehnke, D., Page, C., Mull, L. and Kirby, R. (2009), Comparison of fluid types for resuscitation after acute blood loss in mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos). Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care, 19: 467–472. doi: 10.1111/j.1476-4431.2009.00465.x
- Issue published online: 7 OCT 2009
- Article first published online: 11 SEP 2009
- exotic pets (including birds);
- hemoglobin-based oxygen carrying solution;
- regenerative anemia;
Objective – The purpose of this study was to determine the LD50 for acute blood loss in mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos), compare the mortality rate among 3 fluid resuscitation groups, and determine the time required for a regenerative RBC response.
Design – Prospective study.
Setting – Medical College of Wisconsin Research facility.
Animals – Eighteen mallard ducks were included for the LD50 study and 28 for the fluid resuscitation study.
Interventions – Phlebotomy was performed during both the LD50 and fluid resuscitation studies. Ducks in the fluid resuscitation study received a 5 mL/kg intravenous bolus of crystalloids, hetastarch (HES), or a hemoglobin-based oxygen-carrying solution (HBOCS).
Measurements and Main Results – The LD50 for acute blood loss was 60% of total blood volume. This blood volume was removed in the fluid resuscitation study to create a model of acute blood loss. Following fluid administration, 6 birds in the crystalloid group (66%), 4 birds in the HES group (40%), and 2 birds in the HBOCS group (20%) died. No statistical difference in mortality rate was seen among the 3 fluid resuscitation groups. Relative polychromasia evaluated post-phlebotomy demonstrated regeneration starting at 24 hours and continuing through 48 hours.
Conclusions – The LD50 for acute blood loss in mallard ducks was 60% of their total blood volume. Although no statistical difference in mortality rate was appreciated among the 3 fluid resuscitation groups, a trend of decreased mortality rate was observed in the HBOCS group. An early regenerative response was apparent following acute blood loss.