Objective – To evaluate the prevalence of albuminuria in dogs and cats admitted to the ICU or recovering from an anesthetic event.
Design – Prospective clinical study over a 10-week period in 2003.
Setting – Veterinary teaching hospital.
Animals – One hundred and five dogs and 22 cats.
Interventions – Urine was collected from dogs and cats admitted to the ICU or recovering from an anesthetic event. When possible, a second urine sample was collected approximately 48 hours later from those animals that had albuminuria during the initial screening.
Measurements and Main Results – All dog samples and most cat samples were screened for albumin using a commercial point-of-care immunoassay. Aliquots of samples that tested positive were stored at –20°C until subsequent albumin quantification via antigen capture ELISA. Albuminuria was detected in 63 of 105 (60.0%) dogs and in 14 of 22 (63.6%) cats; the prevalence was higher in animals admitted to ICU than in those recovering from anesthesia. In subsequent samples from 26 dogs, urine albumin decreased in 20 (76.9%) when compared with the first sample; urine albumin was undetectable in 5 (19.2%). In subsequent samples from 6 cats, 4 (66.7%) had decreases in urine albumin when compared with the first sample; 1 (16.7%) was negative for urine albumin. Eleven of 12 dogs (91.7%) and 3 of 4 cats (75%) that died within 3 days of admission to the ICU had abnormal urine albumin; whereas 52 of 93 (55.9%) and 11 of 18 (61.1%) dogs and cats, respectively, who survived more than 3 days had abnormal urine albumin. Dogs with albuminuria were at increased risk of death.
Conclusions – The prevalence of albuminuria in animals admitted to the ICU or recovering from anesthesia is higher than reported previously and transient in some patients. The presence of albuminuria may be a negative prognostic indicator in this population.