Objective – To describe the pathologic consequences of parenteral nutrition (PN) extravasation into the mediastinum of a cat.
Case Summary – An 8-year-old domestic short hair cat with persistent vomiting and anorexia was initiated on PN for nutritional support. PN was being administered at a rate of 12.9 mL/h when inadvertent jugular catheter migration resulted in thrombophlebitis and cellulitis and 40–80 mL of PN extravasated into the SC and mediastinal tissues. The cat was euthanized 36 hours after the extravasation of PN due to poor prognosis related to the gastric complications associated with a presumed primary gastrinoma. Grossly there was excessive mediastinal lymphatic drainage and pronounced edema in the cervical SC and mediastinal tissue. Histopathologic examination of the PN-extravasated area revealed a severe mixed inflammatory reaction, represented by a severe neutrophilic and mild histiocytic infiltrate with lymphoplasmacytic perivascular cuffing. No bacterial agents were observed or cultured from this area.
Unique Information Provided – This is the first case report of a foreign body-type reaction due to extravasation of PN (extravasation injury) in a cat. Extravasation of PN is not without pathologic consequence, and can result in a severe inflammatory reaction in affected tissues.