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Keywords:

  • canine;
  • gastric wall necrosis;
  • ischemic-reperfusion injury;
  • ventricular premature complex

Abstract

Objective

To assess the efficacy of IV lidocaine in decreasing complication rate and improving the outcome in dogs with gastric dilatation volvulus (GDV).

Design

Prospective non-controlled study of 83 lidocaine-treated dogs with GDV compared to 47 untreated historical controls with GDV.

Setting

University veterinary teaching hospital.

Animals

One hundred and thirty client-owned dogs with naturally occurring GDV.

Interventions

Study group dogs were treated at presentation with lidocaine (2 mg/kg, IV bolus) followed by constant rate infusion (CRI) of 0.05 mg/kg/min for 24 h. Historical control dogs did not receive any lidocaine.

Measurements and Main Results

There were no group differences in age, body weight, time lag from onset of clinical signs to presentation, rectal temperature and pulse rate at presentation, and proportion of gastric wall necrosis. The proportions of cardiac arrhythmias and acute kidney injury (AKI) were significantly (P< 0.001 and P = 0.045, respectively) lower in the lidocaine group (10/83 [12%] versus 18/47 [38.3%] and 3/83 [3.6] versus 0/47). Median hospitalization time period was shorter (P = 0.05) in the lidocaine group compared to the controls (median 48 h; range 24–360 h versus median 72 h; range 24–144 h, respectively).

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance

Early treatment with IV lidocaine bolus, followed by CRI of lidocaine for 24 h post presentation decreased the occurrence of cardiac arrhythmias, AKI and hospitalization time period significantly in lidocaine-treated dogs with GDV compared to untreated historical controls. Due to the nonblinded, placebo-uncontrolled, nonrandomized nature of the current study, further evaluation of the efficacy of lidocaine in dogs with GDV is warranted.