In vitro evaluation of canine hemostasis following dilution with hydroxyethyl starch (130/0.4) via thromboelastometry


  • The study was performed at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of Turin, Italy.

  • The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Address correspondence and reprint requests to Dr. Antonio Borrelli, Department of Animal Pathology, Clinical Medicine Section, via Leonardo da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco (TO), Italy. Email:



To assess the effects of in vitro hemodilution of canine blood with a low molecular weight hy-droxyethyl starch (HES 130/0.4) by means of thromboelastometry (TEM).


In vitro experimental study.


University Teaching Hospital.


Ten healthy adult staff-owned dogs were sampled for the purposes of the study. Samples were also collected from 45 clinically normal dogs to establish thromboelastometric reference intervals.


For each dog whole blood was collected by jugular venipuncture and placed into tubes containing 3.8% trisodium citrate and stored at 37°C. Two standard dilutions (1:4 and 1:10) from canine blood specimens were prepared with HES 130/0.4 and saline 0.9%.

Measurements and Main Results

The effects of dilution were studied by TEM. No statistically significant differences were observed between the TEM values of the control samples and the samples diluted with saline solution (ratio 1:10 and 1:4). In contrast, hypocoagulability was observed in the samples treated with HES 130/0.4, with more severe effects at 1:4 dilution than at 1:10 dilution. The 1:4 dilution with HES 130/0.4 produced marked alterations: CT (P = 0.035) and CFT (P = 0.0007) on the ex-TEM profile, CT (P = 0.0005) and ML (P = 0.0017) on the fib-TEM profile and CFT (P = 0.0043) on the in-TEM, were all significantly increased (P < 0.05), whereas MCF (P = 0.0042) and alpha angle (P = 0.002) on the in-TEM and MCF (P = 0.011) and alpha angle (P = 0.001) ex-TEM profiles and MCF (P = 0.0001) on the fib-TEM profile were significantly decreased (P < 0.05).


Dilution of canine blood with HES 130/0.4 results in a thromboelastometric pattern consistent with hypocoagulation and this effect appears to result from a dose-dependent alteration in fibrinogen concentration and inhibition of platelet function. As this is an in vitro study, further in vivo investigations are necessary to confirm the results.