The author declares no conflict of interests.
Flow rates of large animal fluid delivery systems used for high-volume crystalloid resuscitation
Article first published online: 6 DEC 2012
© Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2012
Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
Volume 22, Issue 6, pages 661–665, December 2012
How to Cite
Nolen-Walston, R. D. (2012), Flow rates of large animal fluid delivery systems used for high-volume crystalloid resuscitation. Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care, 22: 661–665. doi: 10.1111/j.1476-4431.2012.00817.x
- Issue published online: 6 DEC 2012
- Article first published online: 6 DEC 2012
- Manuscript Accepted: 26 SEP 2012
- Manuscript Received: 2 AUG 2011
- fluid resuscitation;
- fluid therapy;
Large animal species in states of shock can require particularly high flow rates for volume resuscitation and the ability to deliver adequate volumes rapidly may be a rate-limiting step. The objective of this study was to determine the maximum flow rates of common combinations of IV catheter, extension set, and fluid administration sets.
University veterinary teaching hospital.
In vitro experimental study.
Maximum flow rates were measured using combinations of 4 IV catheters (3 14-Ga and a single 10-Ga), 2 IV catheter extension sets (small bore and large bore), and 2 types of fluid administration sets (standard 2-lead large animal coiled IV set and nonpressurized 4-lead arthroscopic irrigation set). The catheter, extension sets, and administration sets were arranged in 16 configurations, and flow rates measured in triplicate using tap water flowing into an open receptacle.
Measurements and Main Results
Flow rates ranged from 7.4 L/h with an over-the-wire 14-Ga catheter, small-bore extension, and coil set, to 51.2 L/h using a 10-Ga catheter, no extension, and arthroscopic irrigation set. There was an increase of 1.3–8.9% in flow rates between the large- versus small-bore extension sets. Crystalloid delivery in vivo to an adult horse was 21% slower (9.1 L/h versus 11.5 L/h) than the corresponding in vitro measurement.
Extremely high flow rates can be achieved in vitro using large-bore catheters and delivery systems, although the clinical necessity for rates >50 L/h has not been determined. The use of large-bore extension sets resulted in only a minimal increase in flow rate.