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Sonoclot evaluation of whole blood coagulation in healthy adult dogs


  • Study funded by the University of Georgia Clinical Research Committee and the Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Foundation.

  • Dr. Brainard is an Associate Editor of the Journal but only participated in the peer review process as an author. The authors report no other conflicts of interest.

  • Presented in part as a poster at the International Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Symposium on September 15, 2010 in San Antonio, TX.

Address correspondence and reprint requests to

Dr. Benjamin Brainard, 501 DW Brooks Drive, Department of Small Animal Medicine and Surgery, University of Georgia College of Veterinary Medicine, Athens, GA 30602, USA.




To establish a standard protocol for analysis of canine whole blood and generate reference intervals for healthy dogs using the Sonoclot analyzer, and to compare Sonoclot values to standard and viscoelastic coagulation tests.


Prospective study.


Veterinary University research facility and teaching hospital.


Twelve healthy random source dogs and 52 healthy dogs from the general veterinary school population. Interventions: Blood sampling for viscoelastic coagulation testing.

Measurements and Main Results

Blood was collected from 12 healthy adult dogs by jugular venipuncture. After a rest period at room temperature of 30, 60, or 120 minutes, 340 μL of citrated blood was added to 20 μL of 0.2 M CaCl2 in 1 of 2 cuvette types warmed to 37° C. Cuvettes contained a magnetic stir-bar with glass beads (gbACT+) or only a magnetic stir-bar (nonACT). Reference interval samples were collected from 52 healthy adult dogs and analyzed in duplicate. The ACT, CR, and PF were not affected by duration of rest period for either cuvette type. ACT variability was decreased when using gbACT+ cuvettes (P < 0.05). In normal dogs reference intervals (mean ± 2 SD) using gbACT+ cuvettes were: ACT 56.0–154.0 seconds, CR 14.85–46.0, and PF 2.1–4.05. ACT correlated to TEG R-time, K-time, and angle, while CR correlated with all TEG parameters. Fibrinogen correlated with ACT, CR, and PF. Sonoclot did not correlate with other common coagulation tests.


Sonoclot provides viscoelastic evaluation of canine whole blood coagulation and correlated to several TEG parameters and fibrinogen. A standard protocol and reference intervals were established.