• leukocytes;
  • neutrophils;
  • lipid mediators;
  • eicosanoids;
  • DHA;
  • HNE;
  • glutathione;
  • oxidative stress

Background and purpose:  Inflammation is associated with oxidative stress and local generation of lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes, such as 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal (HNE). In most tissues, HNE is readily conjugated with glutathione and presently it is unknown whether glutathionyl-HNE (GS-HNE) plays a functional role in inflammation. Here, we sought to determine whether GS-HNE is a mediator of oxidative stress-initiated inflammation and if its actions can be regulated by the anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving lipid mediator, resolvin D1 (RvD1).

Experimental approach:  GS-HNE was administered intraperitoneally to mice and peritoneal lavages were assessed for leukocyte infiltration and lipid mediators were targeted by mediator-lipidomics. RvD1 was administered to mice treated with GS-HNE and leukocyte infiltration was assessed in the peritoneum. Superoxide production and CD11b modulation were measured in isolated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes incubated with GS-HNE.

Key results:  GS-HNE (1–10 µg) evoked infiltration of Gr-1+ leukocytes into the peritoneum to form an inflammatory exudate. With isolated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes, GS-HNE stimulated both superoxide generation and CD11b expression. Among the lipid mediators, both cyclooxygenase- and lipoxygenase-derived pro-inflammatory eicosanoids, including prostaglandin E2, leukotriene B4 and cysteinyl leukotrienes, were generated in exudates of mice injected intraperitoneally with GS-HNE. RvD1, given i.v. in doses as low as 0.01–10.0 ng, sharply reduced GS-HNE-stimulated leukocyte infiltration (∼30–70%).

Conclusions and implications:  Glutathione conjugates of HNE, derived during oxidative stress, are pro-inflammatory in vivo. RvD1 protects against this oxidative stress-initiated inflammation.

This article is part of a themed issue on Mediators and Receptors in the Resolution of Inflammation. To view this issue visit