SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Adams KM, Gilman S, Koeppe RA, Kluin KJ, Brunberg JA, Dede D et al. (1993). Neuropsychological deficits are correlated with frontal hypometabolism in positron emission tomography studies of older alcoholic patients. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 17: 205210.
  • Adams JB, Heath AJ, Young SE, Hewitt JK, Corley RP, Stallings MC (2003). Relationships between personality and preferred substance and motivations for use among adolescent substance abusers. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 29: 691712.
  • Alexander SP, Mathie A, Peters JA (2009). Guide to Receptors and Channels (GRAC). Br J Pharmacol 158: S1S254.
  • Ametamey SM, Honer M, Schubiger PA (2008). Molecular imaging with PET. Chem Rev 108: 15011516.
  • Arstad E, Platzer S, Berthele A, Pilowsky LS, Luthra SK, Wester HJ et al. (2006). Towards NR2B receptor selective imaging agents for PET-synthesis and evaluation of N-[11C]-(2-methoxy)benzyl (E)-styrene-, 2-naphthyl- and 4-trifluoromethoxyphenylamidine. Bioorg Med Chem 14: 63076313.
  • Belin D, Everitt BJ (2008). Cocaine seeking habits depend upon dopamine-dependent serial connectivity linking the ventral with the dorsal striatum. Neuron 57: 432441.
  • Belin D, Mar AC, Dalley JW, Robbins TW, Everitt BJ (2008). High impulsivity predicts the switch to compulsive cocaine-taking. Science 320: 13521355.
  • Belin D, Jonkman S, Dickinson A, Robbins TW, Everitt BJ (2009). Parallel and interactive learning processes within the basal ganglia: relevance for the understanding of addiction. Behav Brain Res 199: 89102.
  • Boileau I, Dagher A, Leyton M, Gunn RN, Baker GB, Diksic M et al. (2006). Modeling sensitization to stimulants in humans: an [11C]raclopride/positron emission tomography study in healthy men. Arch Gen Psychiatry 63: 13861395.
  • Boileau I, Dagher A, Leyton M, Welfeld K, Booij L, Diksic M et al. (2007). Conditioned dopamine release in humans: a positron emission tomography [11C]raclopride study with amphetamine. J Neurosci 27: 39984003.
  • Briand LA, Flagel SB, Garcia-Fuster MJ, Watson SJ, Akil H, Sarter M et al. (2008). Persistent alterations in cognitive function and prefrontal dopamine D2 receptors following extended, but not limited, access to self-administered cocaine. Neuropsychopharmacology 33: 29692980.
  • Brown WD, Taylor MD, Roberts AD, Oakes TR, Schueller MJ, Holden JE et al. (1999). FluoroDOPA PET shows the nondopaminergic as well as dopaminergic destinations of levodopa. Neurology 53: 12121218.
  • Buchert R, Thomasius R, Wilke F, Petersen K, Nebeling B, Obrocki J et al. (2004). A voxel-based PET investigation of the long-term effects of ‘Ecstasy’ consumption on brain serotonin transporters. Am J Psychiatry 161: 11811189.
  • Buckholtz JW, Treadway MT, Cowan RL, Woodward ND, Benning SD, Li R et al. (2010). Mesolimbic dopamine reward system hypersensitivity in individuals with psychopathic traits. Nat Neurosci 13: 419421.
  • Burke SM, van de Giessen E, de Win M, Schilt T, van Herk M, van den Brink W et al. (2010). Serotonin and dopamine transporters in relation to neuropsychological functioning, personality traits and mood in young adult healthy subjects. Psychol Med 2010: 111.
  • Cardinal RN, Pennicott DR, Sugathapala CL, Robbins TW, Everitt BJ (2001). Impulsive choice induced in rats by lesions of the nucleus accumbens core. Science 292: 24992501.
  • Castner SA, al-Tikriti MS, Baldwin RM, Seibyl JP, Innis RB, Goldman-Rakic PS (2000). Behavioral changes and [123I]IBZM equilibrium SPECT measurement of amphetamine-induced dopamine release in rhesus monkeys exposed to subchronic amphetamine. Neuropsychopharmacology 22: 413.
  • Chakroun N, Doron J, Swendsen J (2004). [Substance use, affective problems and personality traits: test of two association models.]. L'Encephale 30: 564569.
  • Cheon KA, Ryu YH, Kim YK, Namkoong K, Kim CH, Lee JD (2003). Dopamine transporter density in the basal ganglia assessed with [123I]IPT SPET in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 30: 306311.
  • Childress AR, Mozley PD, McElgin W, Fitzgerald J, Reivich M, O'Brien CP (1999). Limbic activation during cue-induced cocaine craving. Am J Psychiatry 156: 1118.
  • Cools R, Sheridan M, Jacobs E, D'Esposito M (2007). Impulsive personality predicts dopamine-dependent changes in frontostriatal activity during component processes of working memory. J Neurosci 27: 55065514.
  • Cumming P, Wong DF, Gillings N, Hilton J, Scheffel U, Gjedde A (2002). Specific binding of [(11)C]raclopride and N-[(3)H]propyl-norapomorphine to dopamine receptors in living mouse striatum: occupancy by endogenous dopamine and guanosine triphosphate-free G protein. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 22: 596604.
  • Cumming P, Rosa-Neto P, Watanabe H, Smith D, Bender D, Clarke PB et al. (2003). Effects of acute nicotine on hemodynamics and binding of [11C]raclopride to dopamine D2,3 receptors in pig brain. Neuroimage 19: 11271136.
  • Dagher A, Bleicher C, Aston JA, Gunn RN, Clarke PB, Cumming P (2001). Reduced dopamine D1 receptor binding in the ventral striatum of cigarette smokers. Synapse 42: 4853.
  • Daglish MR, Williams TM, Wilson SJ, Taylor LG, Eap CB, Augsburger M et al. (2008). Brain dopamine response in human opioid addiction. Br J Psychiatry 193: 6572.
  • Dalley JW, Theobald DE, Eagle DM, Passetti F, Robbins TW (2002). Deficits in impulse control associated with tonically-elevated serotonergic function in rat prefrontal cortex. Neuropsychopharmacology 26: 716728.
  • Dalley JW, Laane K, Pena Y, Theobald DE, Everitt BJ, Robbins TW (2005a). Attentional and motivational deficits in rats withdrawn from intravenous self-administration of cocaine or heroin. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 182: 579587.
  • Dalley JW, Theobald DE, Berry D, Milstein JA, Laane K, Everitt BJ et al. (2005b). Cognitive sequelae of intravenous amphetamine self-administration in rats: evidence for selective effects on attentional performance. Neuropsychopharmacology 30: 525537.
  • Dalley JW, Fryer TD, Brichard L, Robinson ES, Theobald DE, Laane K et al. (2007). Nucleus accumbens D2/3 receptors predict trait impulsivity and cocaine reinforcement. Science 315: 12671270.
  • Dalley JW, Mar AC, Economidou D, Robbins TW (2008). Neurobehavioral mechanisms of impulsivity: fronto-striatal systems and functional neurochemistry. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 90: 250260.
  • Dalley JW, Fryer TD, Aigbirhio FI, Brichard L, Richards HK, Hong YT et al. (2009). Modelling human drug abuse and addiction with dedicated small animal positron emission tomography. Neuropharmacology 56 (Suppl. 1): 917.
  • Dawe S, Loxton NJ (2004). The role of impulsivity in the development of substance use and eating disorders. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 28: 343351.
  • Dewey SL, Smith GS, Logan J, Brodie JD, Fowler JS, Wolf AP (1993). Striatal binding of the PET ligand 11C-raclopride is altered by drugs that modify synaptic dopamine levels. Synapse 13: 350356.
  • Di Chiara G, Imperato A (1988). Drugs abused by humans preferentially increase synaptic dopamine concentrations in the mesolimbic system of freely moving rats. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85: 52745278.
  • Diergaarde L, Pattij T, Poortvliet I, Hogenboom F, de Vries W, Schoffelmeer AN et al. (2008). Impulsive choice and impulsive action predict vulnerability to distinct stages of nicotine seeking in rats. Biol Psychiatry 63: 301308.
  • Ding YS, Singhal T, Planeta-Wilson B, Gallezot JD, Nabulsi N, Labaree D et al. (2010). PET imaging of the effects of age and cocaine on the norepinephrine transporter in the human brain using (S,S)-[(11)C]O-methylreboxetine and HRRT. Synapse 64: 3038.
  • Dresel S, Krause J, Krause KH, LaFougere C, Brinkbaumer K, Kung HF et al. (2000). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: binding of [99mTc]TRODAT-1 to the dopamine transporter before and after methylphenidate treatment. Eur J Nucl Med 27: 15181524.
  • Drevets WC, Gautier C, Price JC, Kupfer DJ, Kinahan PE, Grace AA et al. (2001). Amphetamine-induced dopamine release in human ventral striatum correlates with euphoria. Biol Psychiatry 49: 8196.
  • Economidou D, Pelloux Y, Robbins TW, Dalley JW, Everitt BJ (2009). High impulsivity predicts relapse to cocaine-seeking after punishment-induced abstinence. Biol Psychiatry 65: 851856.
  • Endres CJ, Kolachana BS, Saunders RC, Su T, Weinberger D, Breier A et al. (1997). Kinetic modeling of [11C]raclopride: combined PET-microdialysis studies. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 17: 932942.
  • Ernst M, Zametkin AJ, Matochik JA, Pascualvaca D, Jons PH, Cohen RM (1999). High midbrain [18F]DOPA accumulation in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Am J Psychiatry 156: 12091215.
  • Evenden JL (1999). Varieties of impulsivity. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 146: 348361.
  • Everitt BJ, Robbins TW (2005). Neural systems of reinforcement for drug addiction: from actions to habits to compulsion. Nat Neurosci 8: 14811489.
  • Everitt BJ, Belin D, Economidou D, Pelloux Y, Dalley JW, Robbins TW (2008). Review. Neural mechanisms underlying the vulnerability to develop compulsive drug-seeking habits and addiction. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 363: 31253135.
  • Fineberg NA, Potenza MN, Chamberlain SR, Berlin HA, Menzies L, Bechara A et al. (2010). Probing compulsive and impulsive behaviors, from animal models to endophenotypes: a narrative review. Neuropsychopharmacology 35: 591604.
  • Fone KC, Nutt DJ (2005). Stimulants: use and abuse in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Curr Opin Pharmacol 5: 8793.
  • Galynker II, Watras-Ganz S, Miner C, Rosenthal RN, Des Jarlais DC, Richman BL et al. (2000). Cerebral metabolism in opiate-dependent subjects: effects of methadone maintenance. Mt Sinai J Med 67: 381387.
  • Garavan H, Kaufman JN, Hester R (2008). Acute effects of cocaine on the neurobiology of cognitive control. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 363: 32673276.
  • George O, Koob GF (2010). Individual differences in prefrontal cortex function and the transition from drug use to drug dependence. Neurosci Biobehav Rev.
  • Gerard N, Ceccarini J, Bormans G, Vanbilloen B, Casteels C, Goffin K et al. (2010). Influence of chronic nicotine administration on cerebral type 1 cannabinoid receptor binding: an in vivo micro-PET study in the rat using [(18)F]MK-9470. J Mol Neurosci 42: 126127.
  • Gjedde A, Kumakura Y, Cumming P, Linnet J, Moller A (2010). Inverted-U-shaped correlation between dopamine receptor availability in striatum and sensation seeking. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107: 38703875.
  • Godfrey C, Cave J (2005). Economics of addiction and drugs. Brain Sciences, Addiction and Drugs, UK Government Foresight Programme .
  • Goffin K, Bormans G, Casteels C, Bosier B, Lambert DM, Grachev ID et al. (2008). An in vivo [18F]MK-9470 microPET study of type 1 cannabinoid receptor binding in Wistar rats after chronic administration of valproate and levetiracetam. Neuropharmacology 54: 11031106.
  • Gorelick DA, Kim YK, Bencherif B, Boyd SJ, Nelson R, Copersino ML et al. (2008). Brain mu-opioid receptor binding: relationship to relapse to cocaine use after monitored abstinence. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 200: 475486.
  • Greenwald MK, Johanson CE, Moody DE, Woods JH, Kilbourn MR, Koeppe RA et al. (2003). Effects of buprenorphine maintenance dose on mu-opioid receptor availability, plasma concentrations, and antagonist blockade in heroin-dependent volunteers. Neuropsychopharmacology 28: 20002009.
  • Heinz A, Siessmeier T, Wrase J, Hermann D, Klein S, Grusser SM et al. (2004). Correlation between dopamine D(2) receptors in the ventral striatum and central processing of alcohol cues and craving. Am J Psychiatry 161: 17831789.
  • Heinz A, Siessmeier T, Wrase J, Buchholz HG, Grunder G, Kumakura Y et al. (2005). Correlation of alcohol craving with striatal dopamine synthesis capacity and D2/3 receptor availability: a combined [18F]DOPA and [18F]DMFP PET study in detoxified alcoholic patients. Am J Psychiatry 162: 15151520.
  • Hesse S, Ballaschke O, Barthel H, Sabri O (2009). Dopamine transporter imaging in adult patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Psychiatry Res 171: 120128.
  • Hostetler ED, Eng W, Joshi AD, Sanabria-Bohorquez S, Kawamoto H, Ito S et al. (2010). Synthesis, characterization, and monkey PET studies of [(18)F]MK-1312, a PET tracer for quantification of mGluR1 receptor occupancy by MK-5435. Synapse (in press).
  • Hume SP, Lingford-Hughes AR, Nataf V, Hirani E, Ahmad R, Davies AN et al. (2007). Low sensitivity of the positron emission tomography ligand [11C]diprenorphine to agonist opiates. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 322: 661667.
  • Hyman SE, Malenka RC (2001). Addiction and the brain: the neurobiology of compulsion and its persistence. Nat Rev Neurosci 2: 695703.
  • Innis RB, Malison RT, al-Tikriti M, Hoffer PB, Sybirska EH, Seibyl JP et al. (1992). Amphetamine-stimulated dopamine release competes in vivo for [123I]IBZM binding to the D2 receptor in nonhuman primates. Synapse 10: 177184.
  • Jentsch JD, Taylor JR (1999). Impulsivity resulting from frontostriatal dysfunction in drug abuse: implications for the control of behavior by reward-related stimuli. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 146: 373390.
  • Jones S, Bonci A (2005). Synaptic plasticity and drug addiction. Curr Opin Pharmacol 5: 2025.
  • Jucaite A, Fernell E, Halldin C, Forssberg H, Farde L (2005). Reduced midbrain dopamine transporter binding in male adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: association between striatal dopamine markers and motor hyperactivity. Biol Psychiatry 57: 229238.
  • Kaasinen V, Aalto S, Nagren K, Rinne JO (2004). Insular dopamine D2 receptors and novelty seeking personality in Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord 19: 13481351.
  • Kalivas PW (2008). Addiction as a pathology in prefrontal cortical regulation of corticostriatal habit circuitry. Neurotox Res 14: 185189.
  • Kalivas PW (2009). The glutamate homeostasis hypothesis of addiction. Nat Rev Neurosci 10: 561572.
  • Kalivas PW, Volkow ND (2005). The neural basis of addiction: a pathology of motivation and choice. Am J Psychiatry 162: 14031413.
  • Kauer JA, Malenka RC (2007). Synaptic plasticity and addiction. Nat Rev Neurosci 8: 844858.
  • Kim SE, Han SM (2009). Nicotine- and methamphetamine-induced dopamine release evaluated with in vivo binding of radiolabelled raclopride to dopamine D2 receptors: comparison with in vivo microdialysis data. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 12: 833841.
  • Kim YT, Lee SW, Kwon DH, Seo JH, Ahn BC, Lee J (2009). Dose-dependent frontal hypometabolism on FDG-PET in methamphetamine abusers. J Psychiatr Res 43: 11661170.
  • Krause J, la Fougere C, Krause KH, Ackenheil M, Dresel SH (2005). Influence of striatal dopamine transporter availability on the response to methylphenidate in adult patients with ADHD. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 255: 428431.
  • Kreek MJ, Nielsen DA, Butelman ER, LaForge KS (2005). Genetic influences on impulsivity, risk taking, stress responsivity and vulnerability to drug abuse and addiction. Nat Neurosci 8: 14501457.
  • Kuhl DE, Engel J, Jr, Phelps ME, Selin C (1980). Epileptic patterns of local cerebral metabolism and perfusion in humans determined by emission computed tomography of 18FDG and 13NH3. Ann Neurol 8: 348360.
  • Kumakura Y, Cumming P (2009). PET studies of cerebral levodopa metabolism: a review of clinical findings and modeling approaches. Neuroscientist 15: 635650.
  • Kumakura Y, Danielsen EH, Gjedde A, Vernaleken I, Buchholz HG, Heinz A et al. (2010). Elevated [(18)F]FDOPA utilization in the periaqueductal gray and medial nucleus accumbens of patients with early Parkinson's disease. NeuroImage 49: 29332939.
  • Laruelle M, Iyer RN, al-Tikriti MS, Zea-Ponce Y, Malison R, Zoghbi SS et al. (1997). Microdialysis and SPECT measurements of amphetamine-induced dopamine release in nonhuman primates. Synapse 25: 114.
  • Leopoldo M, Lacivita E, De Giorgio P, Contino M, Berardi F, Perrone R (2009). Design, synthesis, and binding affinities of potential positron emission tomography (PET) ligands with optimal lipophilicity for brain imaging of the dopamine D3 receptor. Part II. Bioorg Med Chem 17: 758766.
  • Levin FR, Kleber HD (1995). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and substance abuse: relationships and implications for treatment. Harv Rev Psychiatry 2: 246258.
  • Lind NM, Gjedde A, Moustgaard A, Olsen AK, Jensen SB, Jakobsen S et al. (2005). Behavioral response to novelty correlates with dopamine receptor availability in striatum of Gottingen minipigs. Behav Brain Res 164: 172177.
  • Liu Y, Morgan D, Roberts DC (2007). Cross-sensitization of the reinforcing effects of cocaine and amphetamine in rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 195: 369375.
  • Ludolph AG, Kassubek J, Schmeck K, Glaser C, Wunderlich A, Buck AK et al. (2008). Dopaminergic dysfunction in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), differences between pharmacologically treated and never treated young adults: a 3,4-dihdroxy-6-[18F]fluorophenyl-l-alanine PET study. NeuroImage 41: 718727.
  • Mach RH, Nader MA, Ehrenkaufer RL, Line SW, Smith CR, Gage HD et al. (1997). Use of positron emission tomography to study the dynamics of psychostimulant-induced dopamine release. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 57: 477486.
  • Martinez D, Broft A, Foltin RW, Slifstein M, Hwang DR, Huang Y et al. (2004). Cocaine dependence and d2 receptor availability in the functional subdivisions of the striatum: relationship with cocaine-seeking behavior. Neuropsychopharmacology 29: 11901202.
  • Martinez D, Narendran R, Foltin RW, Slifstein M, Hwang DR, Broft A et al. (2007). Amphetamine-induced dopamine release: markedly blunted in cocaine dependence and predictive of the choice to self-administer cocaine. Am J Psychiatry 164: 622629.
  • Martinez D, Greene K, Broft A, Kumar D, Liu F, Narendran R et al. (2009a). Lower level of endogenous dopamine in patients with cocaine dependence: findings from PET imaging of D(2)/D(3) receptors following acute dopamine depletion. Am J Psychiatry 166: 11701177.
  • Martinez D, Slifstein M, Narendran R, Foltin RW, Broft A, Hwang DR et al. (2009b). Dopamine D1 receptors in cocaine dependence measured with PET and the choice to self-administer cocaine. Neuropsychopharmacology 34: 17741782.
  • Martinez D, Orlowska D, Narendran R, Slifstein M, Liu F, Kumar D et al. (2010). Dopamine type 2/3 receptor availability in the striatum and social status in human volunteers. Biol Psychiatry 67: 275278.
  • Matsumoto R, Haradahira T, Ito H, Fujimura Y, Seki C, Ikoma Y et al. (2007). Measurement of glycine binding site of N-methyl-D-asparate receptors in living human brain using 4-acetoxy derivative of L-703,717, 4-acetoxy-7-chloro-3-[3-(4-[11c] methoxybenzyl) phenyl]-2(1H)-quinolone (AcL703) with positron emission tomography. Synapse 61: 795800.
  • Matsumoto R, Ichise M, Ito H, Ando T, Takahashi H, Ikoma Y et al. (2010). Reduced serotonin transporter binding in the insular cortex in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder: a [11C]DASB PET study. NeuroImage 49: 121126.
  • Moeller FG, Barratt ES, Dougherty DM, Schmitz JM, Swann AC (2001). Psychiatric aspects of impulsivity. Am J Psychiatry 158: 17831793.
  • Montgomery AJ, Lingford-Hughes AR, Egerton A, Nutt DJ, Grasby PM (2007). The effect of nicotine on striatal dopamine release in man: a [11C]raclopride PET study. Synapse 61: 637645.
  • Morgan D, Grant KA, Gage HD, Mach RH, Kaplan JR, Prioleau O et al. (2002). Social dominance in monkeys: dopamine D2 receptors and cocaine self-administration. Nat Neurosci 5: 169174.
  • Nader MA, Morgan D, Gage HD, Nader SH, Calhoun TL, Buchheimer N et al. (2006). PET imaging of dopamine D2 receptors during chronic cocaine self-administration in monkeys. Nat Neurosci 9: 10501056.
  • Narendran R, Martinez D (2008). Cocaine abuse and sensitization of striatal dopamine transmission: a critical review of the preclinical and clinical imaging literature. Synapse 62: 851869.
  • Narendran R, Hwang DR, Slifstein M, Talbot PS, Erritzoe D, Huang Y et al. (2004). In vivo vulnerability to competition by endogenous dopamine: comparison of the D2 receptor agonist radiotracer (-)-N-[11C]propyl-norapomorphine ([11C]NPA) with the D2 receptor antagonist radiotracer [11C]-raclopride. Synapse 52: 188208.
  • Nestler EJ, Hope BT, Widnell KL (1993). Drug addiction: a model for the molecular basis of neural plasticity. Neuron 11: 9951006.
  • Nigg JT, Wong MM, Martel MM, Jester JM, Puttler LI, Glass JM et al. (2006). Poor response inhibition as a predictor of problem drinking and illicit drug use in adolescents at risk for alcoholism and other substance use disorders. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 45: 468475.
  • Olds J, Milner P (1954). Positive reinforcement produced by electrical stimulation of septal area and other regions of rat brain. J Comp Physiol Psychol 47: 419427.
  • Oswald LM, Wong DF, Zhou Y, Kumar A, Brasic J, Alexander M et al. (2007). Impulsivity and chronic stress are associated with amphetamine-induced striatal dopamine release. NeuroImage 36: 153166.
  • Pattij T, Vanderschuren LJ (2008). The neuropharmacology of impulsive behaviour. Trends Pharmacol Sci 29: 192199.
  • Pedersen K, Simonsen M, Ostergaard SD, Munk OL, Rosa-Neto P, Olsen AK et al. (2007). Mapping the amphetamine-evoked changes in [11C]raclopride binding in living rat using small animal PET: modulation by MAO-inhibition. NeuroImage 35: 3846.
  • Perry JL, Larson EB, German JP, Madden GJ, Carroll ME (2005). Impulsivity (delay discounting) as a predictor of acquisition of IV cocaine self-administration in female rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 178: 193201.
  • Porrino LJ, Smith HR, Nader MA, Beveridge TJ (2007). The effects of cocaine: a shifting target over the course of addiction. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 31: 15931600.
  • Puumala T, Sirvio J (1998). Changes in activities of dopamine and serotonin systems in the frontal cortex underlie poor choice accuracy and impulsivity of rats in an attention task. Neuroscience 83: 489499.
  • Reimold M, Smolka MN, Zimmer A, Batra A, Knobel A, Solbach C et al. (2007). Reduced availability of serotonin transporters in obsessive-compulsive disorder correlates with symptom severity – a [11C]DASB PET study. J Neural Transm 114: 16031609.
  • Robbins TW (2002). The 5-choice serial reaction time task: behavioural pharmacology and functional neurochemistry. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 163: 362380.
  • Robinson ES, Eagle DM, Economidou D, Theobald DE, Mar AC, Murphy ER et al. (2009). Behavioural characterisation of high impulsivity on the 5-choice serial reaction time task: specific deficits in ‘waiting’ versus ‘stopping’. Behav Brain Res 196: 310316.
  • Rominger A, Wagner E, Mille E, Boning G, Esmaeilzadeh M, Wangler B et al. (2010). Endogenous competition against binding of [(18)F]DMFP and [(18)F]fallypride to dopamine D(2/3) receptors in brain of living mouse. Synapse 64: 313322.
  • Rosa Neto P, Lou H, Cumming P, Pryds O, Gjedde A (2002). Methylphenidate-evoked potentiation of extracellular dopamine in the brain of adolescents with premature birth: correlation with attentional deficit. Ann NY Acad Sci 965: 434439.
  • Rosa-Neto P, Gjedde A, Olsen AK, Jensen SB, Munk OL, Watanabe H et al. (2004). MDMA-evoked changes in [11C]raclopride and [11C]NMSP binding in living pig brain. Synapse 53: 222233.
  • Rosa-Neto P, Lou HC, Cumming P, Pryds O, Karrebaek H, Lunding J et al. (2005). Methylphenidate-evoked changes in striatal dopamine correlate with inattention and impulsivity in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. NeuroImage 25: 868876.
  • Schiffer WK, Liebling CN, Reiszel C, Hooker JM, Brodie JD, Dewey SL (2009). Cue-induced dopamine release predicts cocaine preference: positron emission tomography studies in freely moving rodents. J Neurosci 29: 61766185.
  • van Schouwenburg M, Aarts E, Cools R (2010). Dopaminergic modulation of cognitive control: distinct roles for the prefrontal cortex and the basal ganglia. Curr Pharm Des 16: 20262032.
  • Schreckenberger M, Klega A, Grunder G, Buchholz HG, Scheurich A, Schirrmacher R et al. (2008). Opioid receptor PET reveals the psychobiologic correlates of reward processing. J Nucl Med 49: 12571261.
  • Schumann G, Loth E, Banaschewski T, Barker GJ, Buchel C, Conrod PJ et al. (2010). The IMAGEN study: reinforcement-related behaviour in normal brain function and psychopathology. Mol Psychiatry (in press).
  • Shi J, Zhao LY, Copersino ML, Fang YX, Chen Y, Tian J et al. (2008). PET imaging of dopamine transporter and drug craving during methadone maintenance treatment and after prolonged abstinence in heroin users. Eur J Pharmacol 579: 160166.
  • Sobrio F, Gilbert G, Perrio C, Barre L, Debruyne D (2010). PET and SPECT imaging of the NMDA receptor system: an overview of radiotracer development. Mini Rev Med Chem 10: 870886.
  • Sokoloff L, Reivich M, Kennedy C, Des Rosiers MH, Patlak CS, Pettigrew KD et al. (1977). The [14C]deoxyglucose method for the measurement of local cerebral glucose utilization: theory, procedure, and normal values in the conscious and anesthetized albino rat. J Neurochem 28: 897916.
  • Solanto MV (2002). Dopamine dysfunction in AD/HD: integrating clinical and basic neuroscience research. Behav Brain Res 130: 6571.
  • Spencer TJ, Biederman J, Madras BK, Dougherty DD, Bonab AA, Livni E et al. (2007). Further evidence of dopamine transporter dysregulation in ADHD: a controlled PET imaging study using altropane. Biol Psychiatry 62: 10591061.
  • Steeves TD, Miyasaki J, Zurowski M, Lang AE, Pellecchia G, Van Eimeren T et al. (2009). Increased striatal dopamine release in Parkinsonian patients with pathological gambling: a [11C] raclopride PET study. Brain 132: 13761385.
  • Suhara T, Yasuno F, Sudo Y, Yamamoto M, Inoue M, Okubo Y et al. (2001). Dopamine D2 receptors in the insular cortex and the personality trait of novelty seeking. NeuroImage 13: 891895.
  • Thanos PK, Volkow ND, Freimuth P, Umegaki H, Ikari H, Roth G et al. (2001). Overexpression of dopamine D2 receptors reduces alcohol self-administration. J Neurochem 78: 10941103.
  • Tsuang MT, Lyons MJ, Harley RM, Xian H, Eisen S, Goldberg J et al. (1999). Genetic and environmental influences on transitions in drug use. Behav Genet 29: 473479.
  • Uhl GR (1999). Molecular genetics of substance abuse vulnerability: a current approach. Neuropsychopharmacology 20: 39.
  • Van Laere K, Goffin K, Bormans G, Casteels C, Mortelmans L, de Hoon J et al. (2009). Relationship of type 1 cannabinoid receptor availability in the human brain to novelty-seeking temperament. Arch Gen Psychiatry 66: 196204.
  • Vanderschuren LJ, Everitt BJ (2004). Drug seeking becomes compulsive after prolonged cocaine self-administration. Science 305: 10171019.
  • Verdejo-Garcia A, Lawrence AJ, Clark L (2008). Impulsivity as a vulnerability marker for substance-use disorders: review of findings from high-risk research, problem gamblers and genetic association studies. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 32: 777810.
  • Volkow ND, Hitzemann R, Wang GJ, Fowler JS, Wolf AP, Dewey SL et al. (1992). Long-term frontal brain metabolic changes in cocaine abusers. Synapse 11: 184190.
  • Volkow ND, Wang GJ, Fowler JS, Gatley SJ, Ding YS, Logan J et al. (1996). Relationship between psychostimulant-induced ‘high’ and dopamine transporter occupancy. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93: 1038810392.
  • Volkow ND, Wang GJ, Fowler JS, Logan J, Gatley SJ, Hitzemann R et al. (1997). Decreased striatal dopaminergic responsiveness in detoxified cocaine-dependent subjects. Nature 386: 830833.
  • Volkow ND, Wang GJ, Fowler JS, Gatley SJ, Logan J, Ding YS et al. (1998). Dopamine transporter occupancies in the human brain induced by therapeutic doses of oral methylphenidate. Am J Psychiatry 155: 13251331.
  • Volkow ND, Wang GJ, Fowler JS, Gatley SJ, Logan J, Ding YS et al. (1999). Blockade of striatal dopamine transporters by intravenous methylphenidate is not sufficient to induce self-reports of ‘high’. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 288: 1420.
  • Volkow ND, Chang L, Wang GJ, Fowler JS, Ding YS, Sedler M et al. (2001). Low level of brain dopamine D2 receptors in methamphetamine abusers: association with metabolism in the orbitofrontal cortex. Am J Psychiatry 158: 20152021.
  • Volkow ND, Wang GJ, Fowler JS, Logan J, Franceschi D, Maynard L et al. (2002). Relationship between blockade of dopamine transporters by oral methylphenidate and the increases in extracellular dopamine: therapeutic implications. Synapse 43: 181187.
  • Volkow ND, Fowler JS, Wang GJ (2003). The addicted human brain: insights from imaging studies. J Clin Invest 111: 14441451.
  • Volkow ND, Wang GJ, Begleiter H, Porjesz B, Fowler JS, Telang F et al. (2006). High levels of dopamine D2 receptors in unaffected members of alcoholic families: possible protective factors. Arch Gen Psychiatry 63: 9991008.
  • Volkow ND, Wang GJ, Newcorn J, Fowler JS, Telang F, Solanto MV et al. (2007a). Brain dopamine transporter levels in treatment and drug naive adults with ADHD. NeuroImage 34: 11821190.
  • Volkow ND, Wang GJ, Newcorn J, Telang F, Solanto MV, Fowler JS et al. (2007b). Depressed dopamine activity in caudate and preliminary evidence of limbic involvement in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 64: 932940.
  • Volkow ND, Wang GJ, Fowler JS, Telang F (2008a). Overlapping neuronal circuits in addiction and obesity: evidence of systems pathology. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 363: 31913200.
  • Volkow ND, Wang GJ, Telang F, Fowler JS, Logan J, Childress AR et al. (2008b). Dopamine increases in striatum do not elicit craving in cocaine abusers unless they are coupled with cocaine cues. NeuroImage 39: 12661273.
  • Volkow ND, Wang GJ, Kollins SH, Wigal TL, Newcorn JH, Telang F et al. (2009). Evaluating dopamine reward pathway in ADHD: clinical implications. JAMA 302: 10841091.
  • Wand GS, Oswald LM, McCaul ME, Wong DF, Johnson E, Zhou Y et al. (2007). Association of amphetamine-induced striatal dopamine release and cortisol responses to psychological stress. Neuropsychopharmacology 32: 23102320.
  • Wangler C, Schirrmacher R, Bartenstein P, Wangler B (2010). Click-chemistry reactions in radiopharmaceutical chemistry: fast and easy introduction of radiolabels into biomolecules for in vivo imaging. Curr Med Chem 17: 10921116.
  • Williams TM, Davies SJ, Taylor LG, Daglish MR, Hammers A, Brooks DJ et al. (2009). Brain opioid receptor binding in early abstinence from alcohol dependence and relationship to craving: an [11C]diprenorphine PET study. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 19: 740748.
  • Winstanley CA, Eagle DM, Robbins TW (2006). Behavioral models of impulsivity in relation to ADHD: translation between clinical and preclinical studies. Clin Psychol Rev 26: 379395.
  • Wise RA (1996). Neurobiology of addiction. Curr Opin Neurobiol 6: 243251.
  • Wong DF, Gjedde A, Wagner HN, Jr (1986). Quantification of neuroreceptors in the living human brain. I. Irreversible binding of ligands. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 6: 137146.
  • Wong DF, Kuwabara H, Schretlen DJ, Bonson KR, Zhou Y, Nandi A et al. (2006a). Increased occupancy of dopamine receptors in human striatum during cue-elicited cocaine craving. Neuropsychopharmacology 31: 27162727.
  • Wong MM, Nigg JT, Zucker RA, Puttler LI, Fitzgerald HE, Jester JM et al. (2006b). Behavioral control and resiliency in the onset of alcohol and illicit drug use: a prospective study from preschool to adolescence. Child Dev 77: 10161033.
  • Wyss MT, Ametamey SM, Treyer V, Bettio A, Blagoev M, Kessler LJ et al. (2007). Quantitative evaluation of 11C-ABP688 as PET ligand for the measurement of the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 using autoradiographic studies and a beta-scintillator. NeuroImage 35: 10861092.
  • Zald DH, Cowan RL, Riccardi P, Baldwin RM, Ansari MS, Li R et al. (2008). Midbrain dopamine receptor availability is inversely associated with novelty-seeking traits in humans. J Neurosci 28: 1437214378.