The age of anxiety: role of animal models of anxiolytic action in drug discovery

Authors

  • John F Cryan,

    Corresponding author
    1. Neuropharmacology Research Group, School of Pharmacy, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland
    2. Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland
    3. Laboratory of NeuroGastroenterology, Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland
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  • Fabian F Sweeney

    1. Neuropharmacology Research Group, School of Pharmacy, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland
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John F. Cryan, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Cavanagh Pharmacy Building, University College Cork, College Road, Cork, Ireland. E-mail: j.cryan@ucc.ie

Abstract

Anxiety disorders are common, serious and a growing health problem worldwide. However, the causative factors, aetiology and underlying mechanisms of anxiety disorders, as for most psychiatric disorders, remain relatively poorly understood. Animal models are an important aid in giving insight into the aetiology, neurobiology and, ultimately, the therapy of human anxiety disorders. The approach, however, is challenged with a number of complexities. In particular, the heterogeneous nature of anxiety disorders in humans coupled with the associated multifaceted and descriptive diagnostic criteria, creates challenges in both animal modelling and in clinical research. In this paper, we describe some of the more widely used approaches for assessing the anxiolytic activity of known and potential therapeutic agents. These include ethological, conflict-based, hyponeophagia, vocalization-based, physiological and cognitive-based paradigms. Developments in the characterization of translational models are also summarized, as are the challenges facing researchers in their drug discovery efforts in developing new anxiolytic drugs, not least the ever-shifting clinical conceptualization of anxiety disorders. In conclusion, to date, although animal models of anxiety have relatively good validity, anxiolytic drugs with novel mechanisms have been slow to emerge. It is clear that a better alignment of the interactions between basic and clinical scientists is needed if this is to change.

LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed issue on Translational Neuropharmacology. To view the other articles in this issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2011.164.issue-4

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