SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Ainslie G (1975). Specious reward: a behavioral theory of impulsiveness and impulse control. Psychol Bull 82: 463496.
  • Alderson RM, Rapport MD, Kofler MJ (2007). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and behavioral inhibition: a meta-analytic review of the stop-signal paradigm. J Abnorm Child Psychol 35: 745758.
  • Alsop B (2007). Problems with spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) as a model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD). J Neurosci Methods 162: 4248.
  • Aman MG, Vamos M, Werry JS (1984). Effects of methylphenidate in normal adults with reference to drug action in hyperactivity. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 18: 8688.
  • American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edn. American Psychiatric Press: Washington, DC.
  • Amini B, Yang PB, Swann AC, Dafny N (2004). Differential locomotor responses in male rats from three strains to acute methylphenidate. Int J Neurosci 114: 10631084.
  • Antrop I, Roeyers H, Van Oost P, Buysse A (2000). Stimulation seeking and hyperactivity in children with ADHD. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 41: 225231.
  • Antrop I, Buysse A, Roeyers H, Van Oost P (2002). Stimulation seeking and hyperactive behavior in children with ADHD: a re-analysis. Percept Mot Skills 95: 7190.
  • Antrop I, Buysse A, Roeyers H, Van Oost P (2005). Activity in children with ADHD during waiting situations in the classroom: a pilot study. Br J Educ Psychol 75: 5169.
  • Antrop I, Stock P, Verte S, Wiersema JR, Baeyens D, Roeyers H (2006). ADHD and delay aversion: the influence of non-temporal stimulation on choice for delayed rewards. J Child Psychol Psychiatr 47: 11521158.
  • Arnsten AF (2006). Stimulants: therapeutic actions in ADHD. Neuropsychopharmacology 31: 23762383.
  • Ashtari M, Kumra S, Bhaskar SL, Clarke T, Thaden E, Cervellione KL et al. (2005). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a preliminary diffusion tensor imaging study. Biol Psychiatry 57: 448455.
  • Avale ME, Falzone TL, Gelman DM, Low MJ, Grandy DK, Rubinstein M (2004a). The dopamine D4 receptor is essential for hyperactivity and impaired behavioral inhibition in a mouse model of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Mol Psychiatry 9: 718726.
  • Avale ME, Nemirovsky SI, Raisman-Vozari R, Rubinstein M (2004b). Elevated serotonin is involved in hyperactivity but not in the paradoxical effect of amphetamine in mice neonatally lesioned with 6-hydroxydopamine. J Neurosci Res 78: 289296.
  • Banerjee TD, Middleton F, Faraone SV (2007). Environmental risk factors for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Acta Paediatr 96: 12691274.
  • Barkley RA (1990). A critique of current diagnostic criteria for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: clinical and research implications. J Dev Behav Pediatr 11: 343352.
  • Barkley RA (1991). The ecological validity of laboratory and analogue assessment methods of ADHD symptoms. J Abnorm Child Psychol 19: 149178.
  • Barkley RA (1997a). ADHD and the Nature of Self-Control. Guilford: New York.
  • Barkley RA (1997b). Behavioral inhibition, sustained attention, and executive functions: constructing a unifying theory of ADHD. Psychol Bull 121: 6594.
  • Barkley RA, Ullman DG (1975). A comparison of objective measures of activity and distractibility in hyperactive and nonhyperactive children. J Abnorm Child Psychol 3: 231244.
  • Barkley RA, Copeland AP, Sivage C (1980). A self-control classroom for hyperactive children. J Autism Dev Disord 10: 7589.
  • Barkley RA, DuPaul GJ, McMurray MB (1990). Comprehensive evaluation of attention deficit disorder with and without hyperactivity as defined by research criteria. J Consult Clin Psychol 58: 775789.
  • Barkley RA, Edwards G, Laneri M, Fletcher K, Metevia L (2001). Executive functioning, temporal discounting, and sense of time in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). J Abnorm Child Psychol 29: 541556.
  • Barron E, Yang PB, Swann AC, Dafny N (2009). Adolescent and adult male spontaneous hyperactive rats (SHR) respond differently to acute and chronic methylphenidate (Ritalin). Int J Neurosci 119: 4058.
  • Bedard AC, Ickowicz A, Logan GD, Hogg-Johnson S, Schachar R, Tannock R (2003). Selective inhibition in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder off and on stimulant medication. J Abnorm Child Psychol 31: 315327.
  • van den Bergh FS, Bloemarts E, Chan JS, Groenink L, Olivier B, Oosting RS (2006a). Spontaneously hypertensive rats do not predict symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 83: 380390.
  • van den Bergh BR, Mennes M, Stevens V, van der Meere J, Borger N, Stiers P et al. (2006b). ADHD deficit as measured in adolescent boys with a continuous performance task is related to antenatal maternal anxiety. Pediatr Res 59: 7882.
  • Berridge CW, Devilbiss DM, Andrzejewski ME, Arnsten AF, Kelley AE, Schmeichel B et al. (2006). Methylphenidate preferentially increases catecholamine neurotransmission within the prefrontal cortex at low doses that enhance cognitive function. Biol Psychiatry 60: 11111120.
  • Biederman J, Faraone SV, Keenan K, Knee D, Tsuang MT (1990). Family-genetic and psychosocial risk factors in DSM-III attention deficit disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 29: 526533.
  • Biederman J, Faraone SV, Keenan K, Benjamin J, Krifcher B, Moore C et al. (1992). Further evidence for family-genetic risk factors in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Patterns of comorbidity in probands and relatives psychiatrically and pediatrically referred samples. Arch Gen Psychiatry 49: 728738.
  • Bizot JC (1998). Effects of various drugs including organophosphorus compounds (OPC) and therapeutic compounds against OPC on DRL responding. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 59: 10691080.
  • Bizot JC, Chenault N, Houze B, Herpin A, David S, Pothion S et al. (2007). Methylphenidate reduces impulsive behaviour in juvenile Wistar rats, but not in adult Wistar, SHR and WKY rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 193: 215223.
  • Bizot JC, David S, Trovero F (2011). Effects of atomoxetine, desipramine, d-amphetamine and methylphenidate on impulsivity in juvenile rats, measured in a T-maze procedure. Neurosci Lett 489: 2024.
  • Bobb AJ, Castellanos FX, Addington AM, Rapoport JL (2006). Molecular genetic studies of ADHD: 1991 to 2004. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 132: 109125.
  • Boonstra AM, Kooij JJ, Oosterlaan J, Sergeant JA, Buitelaar JK (2005). Does methylphenidate improve inhibition and other cognitive abilities in adults with childhood-onset ADHD? J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 27: 278298.
  • Borcherding BG, Keysor CS, Cooper TB, Rapoport JL (1989). Differential effects of methylphenidate and dextroamphetamine on the motor activity level of hyperactive children. Neuropsychopharmacology 2: 255263.
  • Bradley C (1937). The behavior of children receiving Benzedrine. Am J Psychiatry 94: 577585.
  • Brookes KJ, Mill J, Guindalini C, Curran S, Xu X, Knight J et al. (2006a). A common haplotype of the dopamine transporter gene associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and interacting with maternal use of alcohol during pregnancy. Arch Gen Psychiatry 63: 7481.
  • Brookes K, Xu X, Chen W, Zhou K, Neale B, Lowe N et al. (2006b). The analysis of 51 genes in DSM-IV combined type attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: association signals in DRD4, DAT1 and 16 other genes. Mol Psychiatry 11: 934953.
  • Brown RT, Amler RW, Freeman WS, Perrin JM, Stein MT, Feldman HM et al. (2005). Treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: overview of the evidence. Pediatrics 115: e749e757.
  • Bull E, Reavill C, Hagan JJ, Overend P, Jones DN (2000). Evaluation of the spontaneously hypertensive rat as a model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: acquisition and performance of the DRL-60s test. Behav Brain Res 109: 2735.
  • Bymaster FP, Katner JS, Nelson DL, Hemrick-Luecke SK, Threlkeld PG, Heiligenstein JH et al. (2002). Atomoxetine increases extracellular levels of norepinephrine and dopamine in prefrontal cortex of rat: a potential mechanism for efficacy in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology 27: 699711.
  • Cardinal RN, Winstanley CA, Robbins TW, Everitt BJ (2004). Limbic corticostriatal systems and delayed reinforcement. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1021: 3350.
  • Carlson CL, Tamm L (2000). Responsiveness of children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder to reward and response cost: differential impact on performance and motivation. J Consult Clin Psychol 68: 7383.
  • Carlson CL, Pelham WE Jr, Milich R, Dixon J (1992). Single and combined effects of methylphenidate and behavior therapy on the classroom performance of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. J Abnorm Child Psychol 20: 213232.
  • Carmona S, Proal E, Hoekzema EA, Gispert JD, Picado M, Moreno I et al. (2009). Ventro-striatal reductions underpin symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsivity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biol Psychiatry 66: 972977.
  • Castellanos FX, Tannock R (2002). Neuroscience of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: the search for endophenotypes. Nat Rev Neurosci 3: 617628.
  • Castellanos FX, Lee PP, Sharp W, Jeffries NO, Greenstein DK, Clasen LS et al. (2002). Developmental trajectories of brain volume abnormalities in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. JAMA 288: 17401748.
  • Catania AC (2005). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): Delay-of-reinforcement gradients and other behavioral mechanisms. Precommentary on Sa and v 2005. Behav Brain Sci 28: 419425.
  • Catania AC, Sagvolden J, Keller KJ (1988). Reinforcement schedules: retroactive and proactive effects of reinforcers inserted into fixed-interval performance. J Exp Anal Behav 49: 4973.
  • Cole BJ, Robbins TW (1987). Amphetamine impairs the discriminative performance of rats with dorsal noradrenergic bundle lesions on a 5-choice serial reaction time task: new evidence for central dopaminergic-noradrenergic interactions. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 91: 458466.
  • Cole BJ, Robbins TW (1989). Effects of 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the nucleus accumbens septi on performance of a 5-choice serial reaction time task in rats: implications for theories of selective attention and arousal. Behav Brain Res 33: 165179.
  • Corkum PV, Siegel LS (1993). Is the Continuous Performance Task a valuable research tool for use with children with Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder? J Child Psychol Psychiatry 34: 12171239.
  • Dane AV, Schachar RJ, Tannock R (2000). Does actigraphy differentiate ADHD subtypes in a clinical research setting? J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 39: 752760.
  • DasBanerjee T, Middleton FA, Berger DF, Lombardo JP, Sagvolden T, Faraone SV (2008). A comparison of molecular alterations in environmental and genetic rat models of ADHD: a pilot study. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 147B: 15541563.
  • Daugherty TK, Quay HC (1991). Response perseveration and delayed responding in childhood behavior disorders. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 32: 453461.
  • Davids E, Zhang K, Kula NS, Tarazi FI, Baldessarini RJ (2002a). Effects of norepinephrine and serotonin transporter inhibitors on hyperactivity induced by neonatal 6-hydroxydopamine lesioning in rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 301: 10971102.
  • Davids E, Zhang K, Tarazi FI, Baldessarini RJ (2002b). Stereoselective effects of methylphenidate on motor hyperactivity in juvenile rats induced by neonatal 6-hydroxydopamine lesioning. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 160: 9298.
  • Davids E, Zhang K, Tarazi FI, Baldessarini RJ (2003). Animal models of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Brain Res Brain Res Rev 42: 121.
  • Day M, Pan JB, Buckley MJ, Cronin E, Hollingsworth PR, Hirst WD et al. (2007). Differential effects of ciproxifan and nicotine on impulsivity and attention measures in the 5-choice serial reaction time test. Biochem Pharmacol 73: 11231134.
  • Diana G (2002). Does hypertension alone lead to cognitive decline in spontaneously hypertensive rats? Behav Brain Res 134: 113121.
  • Douglas VI, Parry PA (1994). Effects of reward and nonreward on frustration and attention in attention deficit disorder. J Abnorm Child Psychol 22: 281302.
  • Draeger S, Prior M, Sanson A (1986). Visual and auditory attention performance in hyperactive children: competence or compliance. J Abnorm Child Psychol 14: 411424.
  • Drago J, Padungchaichot P, Accili D, Fuchs S (1998). Dopamine receptors and dopamine transporter in brain function and addictive behaviors: insights from targeted mouse mutants. Dev Neurosci 20: 188203.
  • Drerup JM, Hayashi K, Cui H, Mettlach GL, Long MA, Marvin M et al. (2010). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity phenotype in mice lacking the cyclin-dependent kinase 5 cofactor p35. Biol Psychiatry 68: 11631171.
  • Dwinell MR, Worthey EA, Shimoyama M, Bakir-Gungor B, DePons J, Laulederkind S et al. (2009). The Rat Genome Database 2009: variation, ontologies and pathways. Nucleic Acids Res 37: D744D749.
  • Eagle DM, Bari A, Robbins TW (2008a). The neuropsychopharmacology of action inhibition: cross-species translation of the stop-signal and go/no-go tasks. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 199: 439456.
  • Eagle DM, Baunez C, Hutcheson DM, Lehmann O, Shah AP, Robbins TW (2008b). Stop-signal reaction-time task performance: role of prefrontal cortex and subthalamic nucleus. Cereb Cortex 18: 178188.
  • Epstein JN, Erkanli A, Conners CK, Klaric J, Costello JE, Angold A (2003). Relations between Continuous Performance Test performance measures and ADHD behaviors. J Abnorm Child Psychol 31: 543554.
  • Evenden J (1999a). Impulsivity: a discussion of clinical and experimental findings. J Psychopharmacol 13: 180192.
  • Evenden JL (1999b). Varieties of impulsivity. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 146: 348361.
  • Faraone SV, Doyle AE (2001). The nature and heritability of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 10: 299316.
  • Faraone SV, Perlis RH, Doyle AE, Smoller JW, Goralnick JJ, Holmgren MA et al. (2005). Molecular genetics of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biol Psychiatry 57: 13131323.
  • Felicetti DM, Julliard K (2000). Behaviors of children with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder during a dental recall visit. ASDC J Dent Child 67: 246249, 231.
  • Ferguson SA, Cada AM (2003). A longitudinal study of short- and long-term activity levels in male and female spontaneously hypertensive, Wistar-Kyoto, and Sprague-Dawley rats. Behav Neurosci 117: 271282.
  • Festing MF, Bender K (1984). Genetic relationships between inbred strains of rats. An analysis based on genetic markers at 28 biochemical loci. Genet Res 44: 271281.
  • Firestone P, Douglas V (1975). The effects of reward and punishment on reaction times and autonomic activity in hyperactive and normal children. J Abnormal Child Psychol 3: 201216.
  • Fox AT, Hand DJ, Reilly MP (2008). Impulsive choice in a rodent model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Behav Brain Res 187: 146152.
  • Franke B, Neale BM, Faraone SV (2009). Genome-wide association studies in ADHD. Hum Genet 126: 1350.
  • Freibergs V, Douglas VI (1969). Concept learning in hyperactive and normal children. J Abnorm Psychol 74: 388395.
  • Gainetdinov RR (2008). Dopamine transporter mutant mice in experimental neuropharmacology. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 377: 301313.
  • Gainetdinov RR, Caron MG (2003). Monoamine transporters: from genes to behavior. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 43: 261284.
  • Gainetdinov RR, Wetsel WC, Jones SR, Levin ED, Jaber M, Caron MG (1999). Role of serotonin in the paradoxical calming effect of psychostimulants on hyperactivity. Science 283: 397401.
  • Galvan A, Hare TA, Davidson M, Spicer J, Glover G, Casey BJ (2005). The role of ventral frontostriatal circuitry in reward-based learning in humans. J Neurosci 25: 86508656.
  • Gill M, Daly G, Heron S, Hawi Z, Fitzgerald M (1997). Confirmation of association between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and a dopamine transporter polymorphism. Mol Psychiatry 2: 311313.
  • Gizer IR, Ficks C, Waldman ID (2009). Candidate gene studies of ADHD: a meta-analytic review. Hum Genet 126: 5190.
  • Gordon M (1979). The assessment of impulsivity and mediating behaviors in hyperactive and nonhyperactive boys. J Abnorm Child Psychol 7: 317326.
  • Haenlein M, Caul WF (1987). Attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity: a specific hypothesis of reward dysfunction. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 26: 356362.
  • Hariri AR, Brown SM, Williamson DE, Flory JD, de Wit H, Manuck SB (2006). Preference for immediate over delayed rewards is associated with magnitude of ventral striatal activity. J Neurosci 26: 1321313217.
  • Harrison AA, Everitt BJ, Robbins TW (1999). Central serotonin depletion impairs both the acquisition and performance of a symmetrically reinforced go/no-go conditional visual discrimination. Behav Brain Res 100: 99112.
  • Heal DJ, Smith SL, Kulkarni RS, Rowley HL (2008). New perspectives from microdialysis studies in freely-moving, spontaneously hypertensive rats on the pharmacology of drugs for the treatment of ADHD. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 90: 184197.
  • Heffner TG, Seiden LS (1982). Possible involvement of serotonergic neurons in the reduction of locomotor hyperactivity caused by amphetamine in neonatal rats depleted of brain dopamine. Brain Res 244: 8190.
  • Hendley ED, Ohlsson WG (1991). Two new inbred rat strains derived from SHR: WKHA, hyperactive, and WKHT, hypertensive, rats. Am J Physiol 261: H583H589.
  • Hoerger ML, Mace FC (2006). A computerized test of self-control predicts classroom behavior. J Appl Behav Anal 39: 147159.
  • Hynd GW, Semrud-Clikeman M, Lorys AR, Novey ES, Eliopulos D (1990). Brain morphology in developmental dyslexia and attention deficit disorder/hyperactivity. Arch Neurol 47: 919926.
  • Hynd GW, Semrud-Clikeman M, Lorys AR, Novey ES, Eliopulos D, Lyytinen H (1991). Corpus callosum morphology in attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder: morphometric analysis of MRI. J Learn Disabil 24: 141146.
  • Hynd GW, Hern KL, Novey ES, Eliopulos D, Marshall R, Gonzalez JJ et al. (1993). Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder and asymmetry of the caudate nucleus. J Child Neurol 8: 339347.
  • Iaboni F, Douglas VI, Baker AG (1995). Effects of reward and response costs on inhibition in ADHD children. J Abnorm Psychol 104: 232240.
  • Johansen EB, Aase H, Meyer A, Sagvolden T (2002). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) behaviour explained by dysfunctioning reinforcement and extinction processes. Behav Brain Res 130: 3745.
  • Johansen EB, Sagvolden T, Kvande G (2005). Effects of delayed reinforcers on the behavior of an animal model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Behav Brain Res 162: 4761.
  • Johansen EB, Killeen PR, Sagvolden T (2007). Behavioral variability, elimination of responses, and delay-of-reinforcement gradients in SHR and WKY rats. Behav Brain Funct 3: 60.
  • Johansen EB, Killeen PR, Russell VA, Tripp G, Wickens JR, Tannock R et al. (2009). Origins of altered reinforcement effects in ADHD. Behav Brain Funct 5: 7.
  • Johnson ML, Ely DL, Turner ME (1992). Genetic divergence between the Wistar-Kyoto rat and the spontaneously hypertensive rat. Hypertension 19: 425427.
  • Kahn RS, Khoury J, Nichols WC, Lanphear BP (2003). Role of dopamine transporter genotype and maternal prenatal smoking in childhood hyperactive-impulsive, inattentive, and oppositional behaviors. J Pediatr 143: 104110.
  • Kantak KM, Singh T, Kerstetter KA, Dembro KA, Mutebi MM, Harvey RC et al. (2008). Advancing the spontaneous hypertensive rat model of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Behav Neurosci 122: 340357.
  • Kaufmann L, Zieren N, Zotter S, Karall D, Scholl-Burgi S, Haberlandt E et al. (2010). Predictive validity of attentional functions in differentiating children with and without ADHD: a componential analysis. Dev Med Child Neurol 52: 371378.
  • Kenemans JL, Bekker EM, Lijffijt M, Overtoom CC, Jonkman LM, Verbaten MN (2005). Attention deficit and impulsivity: selecting, shifting, and stopping. Int J Psychophysiol 58: 5970.
  • Kieling C, Goncalves RR, Tannock R, Castellanos FX (2008). Neurobiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 17: 285307.
  • Knardahl S, Sagvolden T (1979). Open-field behavior of spontaneously hypertensive rats. Behav Neural Biol 27: 187200.
  • Knutson B, Gibbs SE (2007). Linking nucleus accumbens dopamine and blood oxygenation. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 191: 813822.
  • Koelega HS (1995). Is the Continuous Performance Task useful in research with ADHD children? Comments on a review. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 36: 14771485; discussion 1487–1493.
  • Kostrzewa RM, Kostrzewa JP, Kostrzewa RA, Nowak P, Brus R (2008). Pharmacological models of ADHD. J Neural Transm 115: 287298.
  • Krapacher FA, Mlewski EC, Ferreras S, Pisano V, Paolorossi M, Hansen C et al. (2010). Mice lacking p35 display hyperactivity and paradoxical response to psychostimulants. J Neurochem 114: 203214.
  • Kratochvil CJ, Vaughan BS, Harrington MJ, Burke WJ (2003). Atomoxetine: a selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Expert Opin Pharmacother 4: 11651174.
  • Kratochvil CJ, Wilens TE, Greenhill LL, Gao H, Baker KD, Feldman PD et al. (2006). Effects of long-term atomoxetine treatment for young children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 45: 919927.
  • Kuczenski R, Segal DS (2001). Locomotor effects of acute and repeated threshold doses of amphetamine and methylphenidate: relative roles of dopamine and norepinephrine. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 296: 876883.
  • Kuczenski R, Segal DS (2002). Exposure of adolescent rats to oral methylphenidate: preferential effects on extracellular norepinephrine and absence of sensitization and cross-sensitization to methamphetamine. J Neurosci 22: 72647271.
  • Kurtz TW, Montano M, Chan L, Kabra P (1989). Molecular evidence of genetic heterogeneity in Wistar-Kyoto rats: implications for research with the spontaneously hypertensive rat. Hypertension 13: 188192.
  • Levy F (1991). The dopamine theory of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Aust N Z J Psychiatry 25: 277283.
  • Liu LL, Yang J, Lei GF, Wang GJ, Wang YW, Sun RP (2008). Atomoxetine increases histamine release and improves learning deficits in an animal model of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: the spontaneously hypertensive rat. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 102: 527532.
  • Logan GD, Cowan WB, Davis KA (1984). On the ability to inhibit simple and choice reaction time responses: a model and a method. J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 10: 276291.
  • Logue AW (1988). Research on self-control: an integrating framework. Behav Brain Sci 11: 665709.
  • Losier BJ, McGrath PJ, Klein RM (1996). Error patterns on the continuous performance test in non-medicated and medicated samples of children with and without ADHD: a meta-analytic review. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 37: 971987.
  • Louis WJ, Howes LG (1990). Genealogy of the spontaneously hypertensive rat and Wistar-Kyoto rat strains: implications for studies of inherited hypertension. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 16 (Suppl. 7): S1S5.
  • Mackworth JF, Taylor MM (1963). The D' measure of signal detectability in vigilance-like situations. Can J Psychol 17: 302325.
  • Malkesman O, Weller A (2009). Two different putative genetic animal models of childhood depression – a review. Prog Neurobiol 88: 153169.
  • McCarty R (1983). Stress, behavior and experimental hypertension. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 7: 493502.
  • McCarty R, Kirby RF (1982). Spontaneous hypertension and open-field behavior. Behav Neural Biol 34: 450452.
  • McCarty R, Kopin IJ (1979). Patterns of behavioral development in spontaneously hypertensive rats and Wistar-Kyoto normotensive controls. Dev Psychobiol 12: 239243.
  • McClure FD, Gordon M (1984). Performance of disturbed hyperactive and nonhyperactive children on an objective measure of hyperactivity. J Abnorm Child Psychol 12: 561571.
  • McGee RA, Clark SE, Symons DK (2000). Does the Conners' Continuous Performance Test aid in ADHD diagnosis? J Abnorm Child Psychol 28: 415424.
  • Miller FE, Heffner TG, Kotake C, Seiden LS (1981). Magnitude and duration of hyperactivity following neonatal 6-hydroxydopamine is related to the extent of brain dopamine depletion. Brain Res 229: 123132.
  • Mischel W, Shoda Y, Rodriguez MI (1989). Delay of gratification in children. Science 244: 933938.
  • Monterosso J, Ainslie G (1999). Beyond discounting: possible experimental models of impulse control. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 146: 339347.
  • Moran-Gates T, Zhang K, Baldessarini RJ, Tarazi FI (2005). Atomoxetine blocks motor hyperactivity in neonatal 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats: implications for treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 8: 439444.
  • Myers MM, Musty RE, Hendley ED (1982). Attenuation of hyperactivity in the spontaneously hypertensive rat by amphetamine. Behav Neural Biol 34: 4254.
  • Nabika T, Nara Y, Ikeda K, Endo J, Yamori Y (1991). Genetic heterogeneity of the spontaneously hypertensive rat. Hypertension 18: 1216.
  • Napolitano F, Bonito-Oliva A, Federici M, Carta M, Errico F, Magara S et al. (2010). Role of aberrant striatal dopamine D1 receptor/cAMP/protein kinase A/DARPP32 signaling in the paradoxical calming effect of amphetamine. J Neurosci 30: 1104311056.
  • Navarra R, Graf R, Huang Y, Logue S, Comery T, Hughes Z et al. (2008). Effects of atomoxetine and methylphenidate on attention and impulsivity in the 5-choice serial reaction time test. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 32: 3441.
  • O'Dougherty M, Nuechterlein KH, Drew B (1984). Hyperactive and hypoxic children: signal detection, sustained attention, and behavior. J Abnorm Psychol 93: 178191.
  • Oades RD, Sadile AG, Sagvolden T, Viggiano D, Zuddas A, Devoto P et al. (2005). The control of responsiveness in ADHD by catecholamines: evidence for dopaminergic, noradrenergic and interactive roles. Dev Sci 8: 122131.
  • Okamoto K, Aoki K (1963). Development of a strain of spontaneously hypertensive rats. Jpn Circ J 27: 282293.
  • Oosterlaan J, Logan GD, Sergeant JA (1998). Response inhibition in AD/HD, CD, comorbid AD/HD + CD, anxious, and control children: a meta-analysis of studies with the stop task. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 39: 411425.
  • Paloyelis Y, Asherson P, Kuntsi J (2009). Are ADHD symptoms associated with delay aversion or choice impulsivity? A general population study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 48: 837846.
  • Pan WX, Schmidt R, Wickens JR, Hyland BI (2005). Dopamine cells respond to predicted events during classical conditioning: evidence for eligibility traces in the reward-learning network. J Neurosci 25: 62356242.
  • Pardon MC, Gould GG, Garcia A, Phillips L, Cook MC, Miller SA et al. (2002). Stress reactivity of the brain noradrenergic system in three rat strains differing in their neuroendocrine and behavioral responses to stress: implications for susceptibility to stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders. Neuroscience 115: 229242.
  • Parry PA, Douglas VI (1983). Effects of reinforcement on concept identification in hyperactive children. J Abnormal Child Psychol 11: 327340.
  • Pelham WE, Gnagy EM, Greiner AR, Hoza B, Hinshaw SP, Swanson JM et al. (2000). Behavioral versus behavioral and pharmacological treatment in ADHD children attending a summer treatment program. J Abnorm Child Psychol 28: 507525.
  • Peloquin LJ, Klorman R (1986). Effects of methylphenidate on normal children's mood, event-related potentials, and performance in memory scanning and vigilance. J Abnorm Psychol 95: 8898.
  • Perwien AR, Kratochvil CJ, Faries DE, Vaughan BS, Spencer T, Brown RT (2006). Atomoxetine treatment in children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: what are the long-term health-related quality-of-life outcomes? J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 16: 713724.
  • Phelan EL (1968). The New Zealand strain of rats with genetic hypertension. N Z Med J 67: 334344.
  • Pietras CJ, Cherek DR, Lane SD, Tcheremissine OV, Steinberg JL (2003). Effects of methylphenidate on impulsive choice in adult humans. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 170: 390398.
  • Pietrzak RH, Mollica CM, Maruff P, Snyder PJ (2006). Cognitive effects of immediate-release methylphenidate in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 30: 12251245.
  • Plichta MM, Vasic N, Wolf RC, Lesch KP, Brummer D, Jacob C et al. (2009). Neural hyporesponsiveness and hyperresponsiveness during immediate and delayed reward processing in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biol Psychiatry 65: 714.
  • Pliszka SR, McCracken JT, Maas JW (1996). Catecholamines in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: current perspectives. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 35: 264272.
  • Porrino LJ, Rapoport JL, Behar D, Ismond DR, Bunney WE Jr (1983a). A naturalistic assessment of the motor activity of hyperactive boys. II. Stimulant drug effects. Arch Gen Psychiatry 40: 688693.
  • Porrino LJ, Rapoport JL, Behar D, Sceery W, Ismond DR, Bunney WE Jr (1983b). A naturalistic assessment of the motor activity of hyperactive boys. I. Comparison with normal controls. Arch Gen Psychiatry 40: 681687.
  • Prior M, Wallace M, Milton I (1984). Schedule-induced behavior in hyperactive children. J Abnorm Child Psychol 12: 227243.
  • Puumala T, Ruotsalainen S, Jakala P, Koivisto E, Riekkinen P Jr, Sirvio J (1996). Behavioral and pharmacological studies on the validation of a new animal model for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Neurobiol Learn Mem 66: 198211.
  • Quay HC (1997). Inhibition and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. J Abnorm Child Psychol 25: 713.
  • Ralph RJ, Paulus MP, Fumagalli F, Caron MG, Geyer MA (2001). Prepulse inhibition deficits and perseverative motor patterns in dopamine transporter knock-out mice: differential effects of D1 and D2 receptor antagonists. J Neurosci 21: 305313.
  • Rapoport JL, Buchsbaum MS, Zahn TP, Weingartner H, Ludlow C, Mikkelsen EJ (1978). Dextroamphetamine: cognitive and behavioral effects in normal prepubertal boys. Science 199: 560563.
  • Rapoport JL, Buchsbaum MS, Weingartner H (1980). Dextroamphetamine: cognitive and behavioral effects in normal and hyperactive boys and normal adult males. Psychopharmacol Bull 16: 2123.
  • Rapport MD, Carlson GA, Kelly KL, Pataki C (1993). Methylphenidate and desipramine in hospitalized children: I. Separate and combined effects on cognitive function. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 32: 333342.
  • Rhodes JS, Garland T (2003). Differential sensitivity to acute administration of Ritalin, apomorphine, SCH 23390, but not raclopride in mice selectively bred for hyperactive wheel-running behavior. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 167: 242250.
  • Rhodes JS, Hosack GR, Girard I, Kelley AE, Mitchell GS, Garland T, Jr (2001). Differential sensitivity to acute administration of cocaine, GBR 12909, and fluoxetine in mice selectively bred for hyperactive wheel-running behavior. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 158: 120131.
  • Riccio CA, Waldrop JJ, Reynolds CR, Lowe P (2001). Effects of stimulants on the continuous performance test (CPT): implications for CPT use and interpretation. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 13: 326335.
  • Robbins TW (2002). The 5-choice serial reaction time task: behavioural pharmacology and functional neurochemistry. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 163: 362380.
  • Robbins TW, Sahakian BJ (1979). ‘Paradoxical’ effects of psychomotor stimulant drugs in hyperactive children from the standpoint of behavioural pharmacology. Neuropharmacology 18: 931950.
  • Robinson ES, Eagle DM, Mar AC, Bari A, Banerjee G, Jiang X et al. (2008). Similar effects of the selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine on three distinct forms of impulsivity in the rat. Neuropsychopharmacology 33: 10281037.
  • Robinson ES, Eagle DM, Economidou D, Theobald DE, Mar AC, Murphy ER et al. (2009). Behavioural characterisation of high impulsivity on the 5-choice serial reaction time task: specific deficits in ‘waiting’ versus ‘stopping’. Behav Brain Res 196: 310316.
  • Rosa Neto P, Lou H, Cumming P, Pryds O, Gjedde A (2002). Methylphenidate-evoked potentiation of extracellular dopamine in the brain of adolescents with premature birth: correlation with attentional deficit. Ann N Y Acad Sci 965: 434439.
  • Routh DK, Schroeder CS (1976). Standardized playroom measures as indices of hyperactivity. J Abnorm Child Psychol 4: 199207.
  • Russell VA (2007). Neurobiology of animal models of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. J Neurosci Methods 161: 185198.
  • Russell VA (2011). Overview of animal models of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Curr Protoc Neurosci Chapter 9: Unit 935.
  • Sagvolden T (2000). Behavioral validation of the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) as an animal model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD). Neurosci Biobehav Rev 24: 3139.
  • Sagvolden T, Berger DF (1996). An animal model of attention-deficit disorder: the female shows more behavioural problems and is more impulsive than the male. Eur Psychol 1: 113122.
  • Sagvolden T, Hendley ED, Knardahl S (1992a). Behavior of hypertensive and hyperactive rat strains: hyperactivity is not unitarily determined. Physiol Behav 52: 4957.
  • Sagvolden T, Metzger MA, Schiorbeck HK, Rugland AL, Spinnangr I, Sagvolden G (1992b). The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) as an animal model of childhood hyperactivity (ADHD): changed reactivity to reinforcers and to psychomotor stimulants. Behav Neural Biol 58: 103112.
  • Sagvolden T, Metzger MA, Sagvolden G (1993a). Frequent reward eliminates differences in activity between hyperkinetic rats and controls. Behav Neural Biol 59: 225229.
  • Sagvolden T, Pettersen MB, Larsen MC (1993b). Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) as a putative animal model of childhood hyperkinesis: SHR behavior compared to four other rat strains. Physiol Behav 54: 10471055.
  • Sagvolden T, Aase H, Zeiner P, Berger D (1998). Altered reinforcement mechanisms in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Behav Brain Res 94: 6171.
  • Sagvolden T, Johansen EB, Aase H, Russell VA (2005a). A dynamic developmental theory of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) predominantly hyperactive/impulsive and combined subtypes. Behav Brain Sci 28: 397419.
  • Sagvolden T, Russell VA, Aase H, Johansen EB, Farshbaf M (2005b). Rodent models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biol Psychiatry 57: 12391247.
  • Sagvolden T, Johansen EB, Woien G, Walaas SI, Storm-Mathisen J, Bergersen LH et al. (2009). The spontaneously hypertensive rat model of ADHD–the importance of selecting the appropriate reference strain. Neuropharmacology 57: 619626.
  • Sahakian BJ, Robbins TW (1977). Are the effects of psychomotor stimulant drugs on hyperactive children really paradoxical? Med Hypotheses 3: 154158.
  • Sallee FR, McGough J, Wigal T, Donahue J, Lyne A, Biederman J (2009). Guanfacine extended release in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a placebo-controlled trial. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 48: 155165.
  • Schachar R, Logan G, Wachsmuth R, Chajczyk D (1988). Attaining and maintaining preparation: a comparison of attention in hyperactive, normal, and disturbed control children. J Abnorm Child Psychol 16: 361378.
  • Schaefer CF (1980). Regarding open-field behavior of the spontaneously hypertensive rat. Behav Neural Biol 29: 537538.
  • Scheres A, Milham MP, Knutson B, Castellanos FX (2007). Ventral striatal hyporesponsiveness during reward anticipation in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biol Psychiatry 61: 720724.
  • Scheres A, Lee A, Sumiya M (2008). Temporal reward discounting and ADHD: task and symptom specific effects. J Neural Transm 115: 221226.
  • Schroeder SR, Milar C, Wool R, Routh DK (1980). Multiple measurement, transsituational diagnosis, and the concept of generalized overactivity. J Pediatr Psychol 5: 365375.
  • Seeman P, Madras BK (1998). Anti-hyperactivity medication: methylphenidate and amphetamine. Mol Psychiatry 3: 386396.
  • Shaw P, Gornick M, Lerch J, Addington A, Seal J, Greenstein D et al. (2007). Polymorphisms of the dopamine D4 receptor, clinical outcome, and cortical structure in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 64: 921931.
  • Shaywitz BA, Klopper JH, Yager RD, Gordon JW (1976a). Paradoxical response to amphetamine in developing rats treated with 6- hydroxydopamine. Nature 261: 153155.
  • Shaywitz BA, Yager RD, Klopper JH (1976b). Selective brain dopamine depletion in developing rats: an experimental model of minimal brain dysfunction. Science 191: 305308.
  • Shaywitz BA, Klopper JH, Gordon JW (1978). Methylphenidate in 6-hydroxydopamine-treated developing rat pups. Effects on activity and maze performance. Arch Neurol 35: 463469.
  • Shiels K, Hawk LW Jr, Reynolds B, Mazzullo RJ, Rhodes JD, Pelham WE et al. (2009). Effects of methylphenidate on discounting of delayed rewards in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 17: 291301.
  • Simpson FO, Phelan EL, Clark DW, Jones DR, Gresson CR, Lee DR et al. (1973). Studies on the New Zealand strain of genetically hypertensive rats. Clin Sci Mol Med Suppl 45 (Suppl. 1): 15s121.
  • Sleator EK, Ullmann RK (1981). Can the physician diagnose hyperactivity in the office? Pediatrics 67: 1317.
  • Smirk FH, Hall WH (1958). Inherited hypertension in rats. Nature 182: 727728.
  • Solanto MV (1986). Behavioral effects of low-dose methylphenidate in childhood attention deficit disorder: implications for a mechanism of stimulant drug action. J Am Acad Child Psychiatry 25: 96101.
  • Solanto MV (2000). Clinical psychopharmacology of AD/HD: implications for animal models. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 24: 2730.
  • Solanto MV (2002). Dopamine dysfunction in AD/HD: integrating clinical and basic neuroscience research. Behav Brain Res 130: 6571.
  • Solanto M, Newcorn J, Vail L, Gilbert S, Ivanov I, Lara R (2009). Stimulant drug response in the predominantly inattentive and combined subtypes of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 19: 663671.
  • Sonuga-Barke EJ (2003). The dual pathway model of AD/HD: an elaboration of neuro-developmental characteristics. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 27: 593604.
  • Sonuga-Barke EJ, Taylor E, Sembi S, Smith J (1992). Hyperactivity and delay aversion – I. The effect of delay on choice. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 33: 387398.
  • Spielewoy C, Roubert C, Hamon M, Nosten-Bertrand M, Betancur C, Giros B (2000). Behavioural disturbances associated with hyperdopaminergia in dopamine-transporter knockout mice. Behav Pharmacol 11: 279290.
  • St Lezin E, Simonet L, Pravenec M, Kurtz TW (1992). Hypertensive strains and normotensive ‘control’ strains. How closely are they related? Hypertension 19: 419424.
  • Strauss J, Lewis JL, Klorman R, Peloquin LJ, Perlmutter RA, Salzman LF (1984). Effects of methylphenidate on young adults' performance and event-related potentials in a vigilance and a paired-associates learning test. Psychophysiology 21: 609621.
  • Suaud-Chagny MF, Buda M, Gonon FG (1989). Pharmacology of electrically evoked dopamine release studied in the rat olfactory tubercle by in vivo electrochemistry. Eur J Pharmacol 164: 273283.
  • Sutherland KR, Alsop B, McNaughton N, Hyland BI, Tripp G, Wickens JR (2009). Sensitivity to delay of reinforcement in two animal models of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Behav Brain Res 205: 372376.
  • Swanson CJ, Perry KW, Koch-Krueger S, Katner J, Svensson KA, Bymaster FP (2006). Effect of the attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder drug atomoxetine on extracellular concentrations of norepinephrine and dopamine in several brain regions of the rat. Neuropharmacology 50: 755760.
  • Swanson J, Baler RD, Volkow ND (2011). Understanding the effects of stimulant medications on cognition in individuals with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a decade of progress. Neuropsychopharmacology 36: 207226.
  • Swanson JM, Volkow ND (2002). Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of stimulants: implications for the design of new treatments for ADHD. Behav Brain Res 130: 7378.
  • Swanson JM, Sunohara GA, Kennedy JL, Regino R, Fineberg E, Wigal T et al. (1998). Association of the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene with a refined phenotype of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a family-based approach. Mol Psychiatry 3: 3841.
  • Swanson JM, Flodman P, Kennedy J, Spence MA, Moyzis R, Schuck S et al. (2000). Dopamine genes and ADHD. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 24: 2125.
  • Swanson JM, Arnold LE, Vitiello B, Abikoff HB, Wells KC, Pelham WE et al. (2002). Response to commentary on the multimodal treatment study of ADHD (MTA): mining the meaning of the MTA. J Abnorm Child Psychol 30: 327332.
  • Swanson JM, Kinsbourne M, Nigg J, Lanphear B, Stefanatos GA, Volkow N et al. (2007). Etiologic subtypes of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: brain imaging, molecular genetic and environmental factors and the dopamine hypothesis. Neuropsychol Rev 17: 3959.
  • Takasuna M, Iwasaki T (1996). Active and passive avoidance learning in rats neonatally treated with intraventricular 6-hydroxydopamine. Behav Brain Res 74: 119126.
  • Tannock R, Schachar RJ, Carr RP, Chajczyk D, Logan GD (1989). Effects of methylphenidate on inhibitory control in hyperactive children. J Abnorm Child Psychol 17: 473491.
  • Tillman CM, Thorell LB, Brocki KC, Bohlin G (2008). Motor response inhibition and execution in the stop-signal task: development and relation to ADHD behaviors. Child Neuropsychol 14: 4259.
  • Tremols V, Bielsa A, Soliva JC, Raheb C, Carmona S, Tomas J et al. (2008). Differential abnormalities of the head and body of the caudate nucleus in attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder. Psychiatry Res 163: 270278.
  • Tripp G, Alsop B (2001). Sensitivity to reward delay in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). J Child Psychol Psychiatry 42: 691698.
  • Tripp G, Wickens JR (2008). Research review: dopamine transfer deficit: a neurobiological theory of altered reinforcement mechanisms in ADHD. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 49: 691704.
  • Tripp G, Wickens JR (2009). Neurobiology of ADHD. Neuropharmacology 57: 579589.
  • Tsuchida R, Kubo M, Shintani N, Abe M, Koves K, Uetsuki K et al. (2009). Inhibitory effects of osemozotan, a serotonin 1A-receptor agonist, on methamphetamine-induced c-Fos expression in prefrontal cortical neurons. Biol Pharm Bull 32: 728731.
  • Tucha L, Tucha O, Laufkotter R, Walitza S, Klein HE, Lange KW (2008). Neuropsychological assessment of attention in adults with different subtypes of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Neural Transm 115: 269278.
  • Tucha L, Tucha O, Walitza S, Sontag TA, Laufkotter R, Linder M et al. (2009). Vigilance and sustained attention in children and adults with ADHD. J Atten Disord 12: 410421.
  • Twigger SN, Shimoyama M, Bromberg S, Kwitek AE, Jacob HJ (2007). The Rat Genome Database, update 2007 – easing the path from disease to data and back again. Nucleic Acids Res 35: D658D662.
  • Ueno KI, Togashi H, Mori K, Matsumoto M, Ohashi S, Hoshino A et al. (2002). Behavioural and pharmacological relevance of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats as an animal model of a developmental disorder. Behav Pharmacol 13: 113.
  • Valera EM, Faraone SV, Murray KE, Seidman LJ (2007). Meta-analysis of structural imaging findings in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biol Psychiatry 61: 13611369.
  • Volkow ND, Wang GJ, Fowler JS, Gatley SJ, Logan J, Ding YS et al. (1998). Dopamine transporter occupancies in the human brain induced by therapeutic doses of oral methylphenidate. Am J Psychiatry 155: 13251331.
  • Volkow ND, Wang GJ, Fowler JS, Logan J, Gatley SJ, Wong C et al. (1999). Reinforcing effects of psychostimulants in humans are associated with increases in brain dopamine and occupancy of D(2) receptors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 291: 409415.
  • Volkow ND, Fowler JS, Wang G, Ding Y, Gatley SJ (2002a). Mechanism of action of methylphenidate: insights from PET imaging studies. J Atten Disord 6 (Suppl. 1): S31S43.
  • Volkow ND, Wang GJ, Fowler JS, Logan J, Franceschi D, Maynard L et al. (2002b). Relationship between blockade of dopamine transporters by oral methylphenidate and the increases in extracellular dopamine: therapeutic implications. Synapse 43: 181187.
  • Volkow ND, Wang GJ, Fowler JS, Telang F, Maynard L, Logan J et al. (2004). Evidence that methylphenidate enhances the saliency of a mathematical task by increasing dopamine in the human brain. Am J Psychiatry 161: 11731180.
  • Volkow ND, Wang GJ, Kollins SH, Wigal TL, Newcorn JH, Telang F et al. (2009). Evaluating dopamine reward pathway in ADHD: clinical implications. JAMA 302: 10841091.
  • Waldman ID, Rowe DC, Abramowitz A, Kozel ST, Mohr JH, Sherman SL et al. (1998). Association and linkage of the dopamine transporter gene and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children: heterogeneity owing to diagnostic subtype and severity. Am J Hum Genet 63: 17671776.
  • Wargin W, Patrick K, Kilts C, Gualtieri CT, Ellington K, Mueller RA et al. (1983). Pharmacokinetics of methylphenidate in man, rat and monkey. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 226: 382386.
  • Warton FL, Howells FM, Russell VA (2009). Increased glutamate-stimulated release of dopamine in substantia nigra of a rat model for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder – lack of effect of methylphenidate. Metab Brain Dis 24: 599613.
  • Weber K (1985). Methylphenidate: rate-dependent drug effects in hyperactive boys. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 85: 231235.
  • Wender PH (1971). Minimal Brain Dysfunction Syndrome in Children. Wiley: New York.
  • Wender PH (1972). The minimal brain dysfunction syndrome in children. J Nerv Ment Disord 155: 5571.
  • Wender PH (1974). Some speculations concerning a possible biochemical basis of minimal brain dysfunction. Life Sci 14: 16051621.
  • Werry JS, Aman MG (1984). Methylphenidate in hyperactive and enuretic children. In: Grennhill LL, Shopsin B (eds). The Psychobiology of Childhood. Spectrum Publications: New York, pp. 183195.
  • Werry JS, Elkind GS, Reeves JC (1987). Attention deficit, conduct, oppositional, and anxiety disorders in children: III. Laboratory differences. J Abnorm Child Psychol 15: 409428.
  • Wickens JR, Macfarlane J, Booker C, McNaughton N (2004). Dissociation of hypertension and fixed interval responding in two separate strains of genetically hypertensive rat. Behav Brain Res 152: 393401.
  • Wilkison PC, Kircher JC, McMahon WM, Sloane HN (1995). Effects of methylphenidate on reward strength in boys with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 34: 897901.
  • Williams JH, Ross L (2007). Consequences of prenatal toxin exposure for mental health in children and adolescents: a systematic review. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 16: 243253.
  • Willner P (1984). The validity of animal models of depression. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 83: 116.
  • Winstanley CA, Eagle DM, Robbins TW (2006). Behavioral models of impulsivity in relation to ADHD: translation between clinical and preclinical studies. Clin Psychol Rev 26: 379395.
  • de Wit H, Enggasser JL, Richards JB (2002). Acute administration of d-amphetamine decreases impulsivity in healthy volunteers. Neuropsychopharmacology 27: 813825.
  • Wultz B, Sagvolden T (1992). The hyperactive spontaneously hypertensive rat learns to sit still, but not to stop bursts of responses with short interresponse times. Behav Genet 22: 415433.
  • Wultz B, Sagvolden T, Moser EI, Moser MB (1990). The spontaneously hypertensive rat as an animal model of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: effects of methylphenidate on exploratory behavior. Behav Neural Biol 53: 88102.
  • Yang PB, Swann AC, Dafny N (2006). Acute and chronic methylphenidate dose-response assessment on three adolescent male rat strains. Brain Res Bull 71: 301310.
  • de Zeeuw P, Aarnoudse-Moens C, Bijlhout J, Konig C, Post Uiterweer A, Papanikolau A et al. (2008). Inhibitory performance, response speed, intraindividual variability, and response accuracy in ADHD. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 47: 808816.