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Figure S1 Representative whole-cell current traces upon capsiate application to HEK293T cells expressing hTRPA1 (A) and mouse TRPA1 (mTRPA1, B). Membrane currents were recorded at −60 mV with voltage-ramp pulses (−100 to +100 mV in 40 ms) every 5 s.

Figure S2 (A) Representative whole-cell current traces upon AITC (20 μM) application to HEK293T cells expressing hTRPA1 in the presence (upper) or absence (lower) of capsiate (30 μM). Five more similar responses were observed. (B) Representative whole-cell current traces upon menthol (500 μM) application to HEK293T cells expressing rTRPM8 in the presence (upper) or absence (lower) of capsiate (30 μM). Four more similar responses were observed.

Figure S3 (A) Structural formulas of capsinoids: capsiate (top), dihydrocapsiate (middle) and nordihydrocapsiate (bottom) and their degradation products [vanillyl alcohol (6E)-8-methyl-6-nonenoicacid, 8-methylnonanoic acid and 7-methyloctanoic acid]. Capsinoids have an ester moiety in the middle of the carbon chain, which can be degraded by nucleophilic acyl substitution under aqueous conditions.

Figure S4 Representative whole-cell current traces upon application of dihydrocapsiate and nordihydrocapsiate degradation products, 8-methyl-6-nonanoic acid and 7-methyloctanoic acid, respectively, to hTRPA1-expressing HEK293T cells.

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