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Keywords:

  • diclofenac;
  • NSAID;
  • hydrogen sulphide;
  • osteoclast;
  • osteoblast;
  • breast cancer;
  • MDA-MB-231;
  • MCF7;
  • 4T1

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and prostaglandins are both involved in inflammation, cancer and bone turnover, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and H2S donors exhibit anti-inflammatory and anti-tumour properties. H2S-releasing diclofenac (S-DCF) derivatives are a novel class of NSAIDs combining the properties of a H2S donor with those of a conventional NSAID.

EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH We studied the effects of the S-DCF derivatives ACS15 and ACS32 on osteoclast and osteoblast differentiation and activity in vitro, human and mouse breast cancer cells support for osteoclast formation and signalling in vitro, and osteolysis ex vivo.

KEY RESULTS The S-diclofenac derivatives ACS15 and ACS32 inhibited the increase in osteoclast formation induced by human MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 and mouse 4T1 breast cancer cells without affecting breast cancer cell viability. Conditioned media from human MDA-MB-231 cells enhanced IκB phosphorylation and osteoclast formation and these effects were significantly inhibited following treatment by ACS15 and ACS32, whereas the parent compound diclofenac had no effects. ACS15 and ACS32 inhibited receptor activator of NFκB ligand-induced osteoclast formation and resorption, and caused caspase-3 activation and apoptosis in mature osteoclasts via a mechanism dependent on IKK/NFκB inhibition. In calvaria organ culture, human MDA-MB-231 cells caused osteolysis, and this effect was completely prevented following treatment with ACS15 and ACS32.

CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS S-diclofenac derivatives inhibit osteoclast formation and activity, suppress breast cancer cell support for osteoclastogenesis and prevent osteolysis. This suggests that H2S-releasing diclofenac derivatives exhibit anti-resorptive properties, which might be of clinical value in the treatment of osteolytic bone disease.