Cyclic AMP is the intracellular second messenger for a variety of immunoregulatory inflammatory mediators such as prostaglandin E2, adenosine and histamine that signal to effector T cells from monocytes, macrophages and regulatory T cells. Protein kinase A (PKA) type I localizes to lipid rafts in effector T cells during T cell activation and directly modulates proximal signal events including phosphorylation of C-terminal Src kinase (Csk), which initiates a negative signal pathway that fine-tunes the T cell activation process. The PKA-Csk immunoregulatory pathway is scaffolded by the A kinase anchoring protein ezrin, the Csk binding protein phosphoprotein associated with glycosphingolipid-enriched membrane microdomains and the linker protein ezrin/radixin/moesin binding protein of 50 kDa. This pathway is hyperactivated in chronic infections with an inflammatory component such as HIV, other immunodeficiencies and around solid tumours as a consequence of local inflammation leading to inhibition of anti-tumour immunity.
LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Novel cAMP Signalling Paradigms. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2012.166.issue-2