Nociceptive and pro-inflammatory effects of dimethylallyl pyrophosphate via TRPV4 activation
Article first published online: 17 MAY 2012
© 2012 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society
British Journal of Pharmacology
Volume 166, Issue 4, pages 1433–1443, June 2012
How to Cite
Bang, S., Yoo, S., Yang, T., Cho, H. and Hwang, S. (2012), Nociceptive and pro-inflammatory effects of dimethylallyl pyrophosphate via TRPV4 activation. British Journal of Pharmacology, 166: 1433–1443. doi: 10.1111/j.1476-5381.2012.01884.x
- Issue published online: 17 MAY 2012
- Article first published online: 17 MAY 2012
- Accepted manuscript online: 2 FEB 2012 10:47AM EST
- Received; 24 June 2011; Revised; 12 December 2011; Accepted; 13 January 2012
- dimethylallyl pyrophosphate;
- sensory neuron;
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Sensory neuronal and epidermal transient receptor potential ion channels (TRPs) serve an important role as pain sensor molecules. While many natural and synthetic ligands for sensory TRPs have been identified, little is known about the endogenous activator for TRPV4. Recently, we reported that endogenous metabolites produced by the mevalonate pathway regulate the activities of sensory neuronal TRPs. Here, we show that dimethylallyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP), a substance produced by the same pathway is an activator of TRPV4.
EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH We examined the effects of DMAPP on sensory TRPs using Ca2+ imaging and whole-cell electrophysiology experiments with a heterologous expression system (HEK293T cells transfected with individual TRP channels), cultured sensory neurons and keratinocytes. We then evaluated nociceptive behavioural and inflammatory changes upon DMAPP administration in mice in vivo.
KEY RESULTS In the HEK cell heterologous expression system, cultured sensory neurons and keratinocytes, µM concentrations of DMAPP activated TRPV4. Agonistic and antagonistic potencies of DMAPP for other sensory TRP channels were examined and activation of TRPV3 by camphor was found to be inhibited by DMAPP. In vivo assays, intraplantar injection of DMAPP acutely elicited nociceptive flinches that were prevented by pretreatment with TRPV4 blockers, indicating that DMAPP is a novel pain-producing molecule through TRPV4 activation. Further, DMAPP induced acute inflammation and noxious mechanical hypersensitivities in a TRPV4-dependent manner.
CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Overall, we found a novel sensory TRP acting metabolite and suggest that its use may help to elucidate the physiological role of TRPV4 in nociception and associated inflammation.