• cyclooxygenase;
  • immunohistochemistry;
  • NSAIDs;
  • piroxicam;
  • prostatic carcinoma


Prostatic carcinoma occurs primarily in older castrated male dogs and is typically a fatal disease (most dogs die within few months after the initial diagnosis). Surgery, i.e., total prostatectomy, or radiation therapy is often not pursued due to risks of complications and a high rate of distant metastasis. Cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) expression has been documented in several malignancies, including canine prostatic carcinoma. Cox-2 inhibition has been reported to have preventative effects on several human malignancies and has therapeutic effects on both laboratory and spontaneous tumour models. The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate Cox expression and the effects of Cox inhibitors on survival in dogs with prostatic carcinoma. 94.1 and 88.2% of the tumours expressed Cox-1 and Cox-2, respectively. Furthermore, dogs treated with Cox inhibitors (piroxicam or carprofen) lived significantly longer than untreated dogs, 6.9 versus 0.7 months (P < 0.0001), suggesting that Cox inhibitors may have an important role in canine prostate cancer therapy.