Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a tyrosine kinase receptor that stimulates cell proliferation and survival and becomes dysregulated in a range of solid tumours in man. It is recognized as a key oncogenic driver and has become a favoured therapeutic target and a prognostic and predictive marker of cancer in man. In animals, EGFR dysregulation is emerging as a potential factor in the development of a number of naturally occurring tumours including mammary, lung, glial and epithelial cancers. Comparative analyses suggest that these diseases share many features with equivalent diseases in man and EGFR may have value as a prognostic or a biological marker of animal disease. There is still little direct evidence that EGFR is a critical oncogenic driver in naturally occurring animal disease and there are no veterinary trials of EGFR-targeted therapy. These will be critical steps in establishing a role for EGFR in veterinary oncology.