Understanding the relationship between drug dose and exposure (pharmacokinetics, PK) and the relationship between exposure and effect (pharmacodynamics) is an important component of pharmacology when attempting to predict clinical effects of anticancer drugs. PK studies can provide a better understanding of these relationships; however, they often involve intensive sampling over an extended period of time, resulting in increased cost and decreased compliance. Doxorubicin (DOX), one of the most widely used antineoplastic agents in veterinary cancer therapy, is characterized by large interpatient variability in overall drug exposure and the development and degree of myelosuppression following equivalent dosages. We have developed and validated a limited-sampling strategy for DOX, in which three blood samples are obtained over 1 h post-treatment, that accurately predicts patient exposure. This strategy could allow for refining of dosing variables and utilization of therapeutic drug monitoring to ensure optimized dosing.