In this study, we have determined serum neopterin levels in female dogs with primary malignant mammary tumours. The study involved 50 female dogs which had a malignant mammary tumours removed surgically (32 animals with carcinoma, 12 animals with sarcoma and 6 animals with carcinosarcoma) and 10 clinically healthy female dogs. Serum neopterin levels were determined using a commercial ELISA kit. The mean neopterin levels were lower in the malignant tumour groups than in healthy animals but differences were statistically significant only in carcinoma and sarcoma groups. The decrease of neopterin levels in animals with malignant mammary tumours may suggest their decreased cellular immunity. Moreover, it might indicate that decreased activity of cellular mechanisms of the anti-neoplastic response is one of the factors associated with the development and course of malignant mammary tumours in female dogs; however, further studies are necessary.