‘Exempt from time and from its fatal change’: Spanish imperial ideology, 1450–1700


  • To the memory of Peer Schmidt

  • Ramón y Cajal at the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (UAM) (RYC-2007-01121); research projects: ‘Repensando la identidad: la Monarquía de España entre 1665 y 1746’ MICIN, HAR2011-27562; ‘Epistemología Histórica: Historia de las emociones en los siglos XIX y XX’ MICIN, FFI2010-20876 (subprograma FISO). This article is the outcome of ten years of research, during which it benefited from the priceless suggestions of so many scholars and students I cannot thank them all by name. Yet I must express my gratitude to those without whom it would have been impossible to write it. First, to my research founding fathers from the UAM: Julián Viejo Yharrassassy, Pablo Fernández Albaladejo, Ignacio M. Vicent López, José María Iñurritegui Rodríguez, and José M. Portillo Valdés. To Xavier Gil Pujol and Bartolomé Clavero, whose feedback was invaluable in a research transition period. To the genuine point of view of the AWC research team from the EUI in Florence: Antonio Terrasa Lozano, Domingo Centenero del Arce, and Francesca Zantedeschi. And, in later stages, especially to David Armitage, Josep Maria Fradera, Jorge Cañizares-Esguerra, Bernard Bailyn, Peer Schmidt, Javier Fernández Sebastián, and Andrew Fitzmaurice, who discussed this thesis at length and gave me the best advice to improve it. Finally, I am very grateful to the anonymous readers of the journal for their comments and to Ruth Mackay for her help with language.