Review of climate policies in the Baltic States



Production and use of energy is the main source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in developed countries. In the Baltic States, climate change mitigation policies and measures implemented have been driven mainly by efforts to reach EU accession standards, and all EU environmental directives relating to the energy sector have now been implemented. This has had a significant impact on the reduction of GHG emissions. This article presents a comparative review of the general framework for climate change mitigation in the energy sector of the Baltic States. It compares and analyses measures already implemented in the three countries — legal, fiscal and voluntary — and market based tools to reduce GHG emissions, and evaluates the impact of EU environmental and energy directives on the reduction of GHG emissions. Some descriptive sections of the article come from the Nordic Council of Ministers study “Challenges of Kyoto commitments for the Baltic States’ energy sectors”.