This paper proposes a theoretical framework for examining how farm households will respond to the reversal of productivist farm policies and applies this to a longitudinal study of farm households in upland Scotland over the period 1987-91. The paper argues that the actions of farm households may be understood not only in terms of their structural situation but also as an expression of the values and motivations which underlie behaviour (their disposition-to-act). A model is proposed, in which a farm household's disposition-to-act interacts with the internal resources of the farm and household, and with the external context (markets, policies, social and cultural values), in influencing behaviour. Empirically, this model is then used to explore changing farm structures, changing allocations of labour, changing sources of farm household income, and engagement with policy measures among a sample of 300 upland farm households. The results suggest that there will be considerable diversity in farm household behaviour during the transition to post-productivism, with widespread reluctance to adjust to the new imperatives.