Technology Adoption and Pest Control Strategies Among UK Cereal Farmers: Evidence from Parametric and Nonparametric Count Data Models


  • Abhijit Sharma,

  • Alastair Bailey,

  • Iain Fraser

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    •  Abhijit Sharma is with the Bradford University School of Management, Emm Lane, Bradford BD9 4JL, UK. E-mail: for correspondence. Alastair Bailey and Iain Fraser are with the Department of Economics, University of Kent, Kent, UK. We wish to acknowledge financial support received from the UK Research Councils through the Rural Economy and Land Use Grant (RES-224-25-0093). We would also like to thank survey participants in our pilot survey, as well as Rothamsted Research for granting us access to these farmers and to all respondents of the main survey itself. We acknowledge the help of the HGCA for allowing us the use of their mailing database to undertake the main survey. Finally, we would like to thank two anonymous referees and the editors of the JAE for their helpful comments on an earlier version of this paper, as well as Marco Bertaglia, Elodie Douarin, Mark Freeman, Alex Mohr and Chengang Wang for useful comments received. The usual disclaimers apply.


This paper examines the intensity of technology adoption and integrated pest management strategies employed by UK farmers, using both parametric and nonparametric methods. We employ a unique survey dataset collected from UK cereal farmers to assess the determinants of technology adoption in relation to pest management. Our preferred model specification is nonparametric, with models estimated yielding broadly similar results, with some important qualitative differences. All models indicate that total area farmed is positively related to the number of technologies adopted, whereas the number of years of experience of the farmer is negatively related. We also find evidence with our nonparametric specification of significant statistical differences for number of adoptions by region across the UK.