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Abstract

Recent research has overturned the pre-existing understanding of the history of guns and gunpowder. This has invalidated the Military Revolution theory that argued that firearms revolutionized Europe warfare between 1500 and 1800, leading to the modern nation state. More research will be necessary to detail how and why gunpowder and guns spread throughout the world the way they did, and why Europeans were able to advance gun technology so quickly beginning in the 17th century.