*I would like to acknowledge with gratitude the support provided by a Fulbright Faculty Research Grant in Islamic Civilization which made possible research in the occupied West Bank in 1990. The Palestinian Academic Society for the Study of International Affairs (PASSIA) graciously offered institutional support and hospitality. Shorter versions of this paper were presented at the conference on Culture and Modernity in the Arab World at George Washington University, February 1993 and at the Center for Near Eastern Languages and Civilization at the University of Chicago, April 1993. Participants at both provided valuable suggestions for revisions. I would like to thank Barbara Harlow and Salim Tamāri for their very helpful comments and suggestions.