Abstract: Background: We studied, retrospectively, the efficacy to control rejection and long-term safety of liver allograft radiotherapy (RT) performed in 14 children. Long-term safety data were collected with the prospect of possible use of RT in liver cell transplantation (LCT).
Methods: Immune suppression included cyclosporine, azathioprine and prednisone. In case of intractable rejection, low-dose allograft RT was administered daily for 3 days, and short-term efficacy was evaluated by liver enzyme assays and histology. The long-term outcome was compared with that of 122 patients undergone transplantation and who had similar treatment, but no RT.
Results: Survival at 15 years was 71.4% vs 69.7% in the comparison group. In the RT group, rejection control was complete in six of 14 children and partial in two, all being alive and well 14–18 years later. Ten of 14 children had follow-up biopsy. Six children had normal histology and four had mild unspecific fibrosis. The long-term follow-up biopsy in the comparison group showed fibrosis in 42 of 85 children. The incidence of complications was similar in both groups.
Conclusions: This series shows that, such a RT regimen appeared to be efficient and safe as a rescue treatment for acute rejection. Provided that further investigations in animal models show a certain benefit of low-dose irradiation around LCT, such a regimen could be proposed in human liver cell transplant programmes.