• adolescents;
  • alanine aminotransferase;
  • chemotherapy;
  • children;
  • human immunodeficiency virus;
  • immunosuppression;
  • liver transplantation;
  • pregnancy;
  • special populations

Abstract: Clinicians face many challenges in striving to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Some of the most urgent issues relate to preventing or reducing the development of antiviral resistance that may arise during oral antiviral therapy. In addition, the management of special populations, including patients with normal alanine aminotransferase levels, children and adolescents, women planning pregnancy or already pregnant, patients undergoing chemotherapy or other forms of immunosuppression, patients with HBV and human immunodeficiency virus coinfection, and those undergoing liver transplantation, present further challenges. This concise review examines recent findings on the efficacy of antiviral therapy in these special patient groups.