Background: The impact of superimposed non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is well established in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CH-C), but the impact in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CH-B) is less clear.
Aim: This study aims to evaluate the prevalence of NAFLD in patients with CH-B and the association with viral and host factors, particularly in patients with metabolic syndrome (MS).
Design: Data from patients with CH-B was obtained from our databases. Patients with excessive alcohol use were excluded. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotyping by INNO-LIPA was available for some patients. The presence of MS was defined according to the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III). All biopsies were read by two hepatopathologists using Metavir, modified histologic activity index (MHAI), as well as a NAFLD pathologic protocol. Patients were classified as (1) those without NAFLD; (2) those with simple hepatic steatosis; (3) and those with superimposed non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Factors associated with superimposed NAFLD, its subtypes, and hepatic fibrosis were also analysed.
Results: Subjects included 153 HBV patients [66% male, age 50.5±27.5 years, body mass index 24.7±3.7 kg/m2, waist 83.2±10.9 cm; 8.5% Caucasian, 67% Asian, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) 63.2±88.2 IU/l, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) 98.6±164.6 IU/l, glucose 111.6±50.5 mg/dl, HBV–DNA 1.8 × 108±1.9 × 106 copies/ml, 7% with MS, 13% with diabetes, 20% with arterial hypertension and 8.5% with dyslipidaemia]. Liver biopsy was available for 64 subjects [19% had superimposed NAFLD, 13% had superimposed NASH, 86% had some degree of fibrosis, and 39% had advanced fibrosis (Ishak >3)]. Patients with HBV and superimposed NASH were significantly older (55 vs. 42 years, P=0.008), more likely to have hypertension (63% vs. 15%, P=0.006) and dyslipidaemia (50% vs. 8%, P=0.006), and had a larger waist circumference (92 vs. 83 cm, P=0.03). The presence of fibrosis was associated with higher waist circumference (84 vs. 80 cm, P=0.03), higher HBV-DNA (1.9 × 108 vs. 5 × 106 copies/ml, P=0.005), and elevated ALT >40 IU/l (73.6% vs. 33.3%, P=0.02).
Conclusions: The components of MS (obesity, hypertension, and dyslipidaemia) are associated with the presence of NASH in patients with CH-B. The presence of hepatic fibrosis seems to be associated with known host and viral factors as well as the presence of abdominal obesity.