Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection causes insulin resistance. Because increased insulin resistance is a risk factor for development of hepatocellular carcinoma and reduced long-term survival, insulin resistance is a therapeutic target in patients with HCV infection. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are not only structural constituents of proteins but they are also considered as regulators of insulin signalling. We first describe two cases suggesting that administration of BCAAs improves insulin resistance associated with HCV-related liver disease. Although there were no changes in body weight, plasma glucose concentration and haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) value were decreased. Moreover, BCAAs caused a decrease in both fasting insulin concentration and the value of homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance. Thus, BCAAs are a potential therapeutic agent for improving insulin resistance in patients with HCV-related liver disease.