• 1
    Hoofnagle JH, Mullen KD, Jones DB, et al. Treatment of chronic non-A, non-B hepatitis with recombinant human alpha interferon. A preliminary report. N Engl J Med 1986; 315: 15758.
  • 2
    Poynard T, Marcellin P, Lee SS, et al. Randomised trial of interferon alpha2b plus ribavirin for 48 weeks or for 24 weeks versus interferon alpha2b plus placebo for 48 weeks for treatment of chronic infection with hepatitis C virus. International Hepatitis Interventional Therapy Group (IHIT). Lancet 1998; 352: 142632.
  • 3
    McHutchison JG, Gordon SC, Schiff ER, et al. Interferon alfa-2b alone or in combination with ribavirin as initial treatment for chronic hepatitis C. Hepatitis Interventional Therapy Group. N Engl J Med 1998; 339: 148592.
  • 4
    Fried MW, Shiffman ML, Reddy KR, et al. Peginterferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C virus infection. N Engl J Med 2002; 347: 97582.
  • 5
    Manns MP, McHutchison JG, Gordon SC, et al. Peginterferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin compared with interferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin for initial treatment of chronic hepatitis C: a randomised trial. Lancet 2001; 358: 95865.
  • 6
    Mangia A, Minerva N, Bacca D, et al. Individualized treatment duration for hepatitis C genotype 1 patients: a randomized controlled trial. Hepatology 2008; 47: 4350.
  • 7
    Drusano GL, Preston SL. A 48-week duration of therapy with pegylated interferon alpha 2b plus ribavirin may be too short to maximize long-term response among patients infected with genotype-1 hepatitis C virus. J Infect Dis 2004; 189: 96470.
  • 8
    Jensen DM, Morgan TR, Marcellin P, et al. Early identification of HCV genotype 1 patients responding to 24 weeks peginterferon alpha-2a (40 kd)/ribavirin therapy. Hepatology 2006; 43: 95460.
  • 9
    Ferenci P, Laferl HAustrian Hepatitis Study Group et al. Peginterferon alfa-2a and ribavirin for 24 weeks in hepatitis C Type 1 and 4 patients with rapid virological response. Gastroenterology 2008; 135: 1561.
  • 10
    Fried MW, Hadziyannis SJ, Shiffman M, Messinger D. Rapid virological response is a more important predictor of sustained virological response (SVR) than genotype in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. J Hepatol 2008; 48 (Suppl. 2): S5, abstract 7.
  • 11
    Hadziyannis SJ, Sette Jr PEGASYS International Study Group et al. Peginterferon-alpha2a and ribavirin combination therapy in chronic hepatitis C: a randomized study of treatment duration and ribavirin dose. Ann Intern Med 2004; 140: 34655.
  • 12
    Sherman M, Yoshida EMCanadian Pegasys Study Group et al. Peginterferon alfa-2a (40KD) plus ribavirin in chronic hepatitis C patients who failed previous interferon therapy. Gut 2006; 55: 16318.
  • 13
    Lindahl K, Stahle L, Bruchfeld A, Schvarcz R. High-dose ribavirin in combination with standard dose peginterferon for treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology 2005; 41: 2759.
  • 14
    Shiffman ML, Salvatore J, Hubbard S, et al. Treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus genotype 1 with peginterferon, ribavirin, and epoetin alpha. Hepatology 2007; 46: 3719.
  • 15
    Chatterjee A, Swain MG, Lee SS, et al. Induction versus noninduction antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis C virus in patients with congenital coagulation disorders: a Canadian multicentre trial. Can J Gastroenterol 2007; 21: 915.
  • 16
    Carr C, Hollinger FB, Yoffe B, et al. Efficacy of interferon alpha-2b induction therapy before retreatment for chronic hepatitis C. Liver Int 2007; 27: 11118.
  • 17
    Fried MW, Jensen D, Rodriguez-Torres M, et al. Improved outcomes in hepatitis C patients with difficult to treat characteristics: randomized study of higher doses of peginterferon α-2a and ribavirin. Hepatology, 2008; 48: 1033.
  • 18
    Sulkowski M, Lawitz E, Shiffman ML, et al. Final results of the IDEAL (individualized dosing efficacy versus flat dosing to assess optimal pegylated interferon therapy) phase IIIB study. J Hepatol 2008; 48 (Suppl. 2): S370, abstract #991.
  • 19
    Berg T, Von Wagner M, Nasser S, et al. Extended treatment duration for hepatitis C virus type: comparing 48 versus 72 weeks of peginterferon-alfa-2a plus ribavirin. Gastroenterology 2006; 130: 108697.
  • 20
    Sánchez-Tapias JM, Diago MTeraViC-4 Study Group et al. Peginterferon-alfa2a plus ribavirin for 48 versus 72 weeks in patients with detectable hepatitis C virus RNA at week 4 of treatment. Gastroenterology 2006; 131: 45160.
  • 21
    Ferenci P, Brunner HAustrian Hepatitis Study Group et al. A randomized, prospective trial of ribavirin 400 mg/day versus 800 mg/day in combination with peginterferon alfa-2a in hepatitis C virus genotypes 2 and 3. Hepatology 2008; 47: 181623.
  • 22
    Dalgard O, Bjøro KNorth-C Group et al. Pegylated interferon alfa and ribavirin for 14 versus 24 weeks in patients with hepatitis C virus genotype 2 or 3 and rapid virological response. Hepatology 2008; 47: 3542.
  • 23
    Mangia A, Santoro R, Minerva N, et al. Peginterferon alfa-2b and ribavirin for 12 vs. 24 weeks in HCV genotype 2 or 3. N Engl J Med 2005; 352: 260917.
  • 24
    Bronowicki JP, Ouzan D, Asselah T, et al. Effect of ribavirin in genotype 1 patients with hepatitis C responding to pegylated interferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin. Gastroenterology 2006; 131: 10408.
  • 25
    Powis J, Peltekian KMCanadian Pegasys Study Group et al. Exploring differences in response to treatment with peginterferon alpha 2a (40 kD) and ribavirin in chronic hepatitis C between genotypes 2 and 3. J Viral Hepatol 2008; 15: 527.
  • 26
    Bressler BL, Guindi M, Tomlinson G, Heathcote J. High body mass index is an independent risk factor for nonresponse to antiviral treatment in chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology 2003; 38: 63944.
  • 27
    Patton HM, Patel K, Behling C, et al. The impact of steatosis on disease progression and early and sustained treatment response in chronic hepatitis C patients. J Hepatol 2004; 40: 48490.
  • 28
    Romero-Gómez M, Del Mar Viloria M, Andrade RJ, et al. Insulin resistance impairs sustained response rate to peginterferon plus ribavirin in chronic hepatitis C patients. Gastroenterology 2005; 128: 63641.
  • 29
    Conjeevaram HS, Kleiner DEVirahep-C Study Group et al. Race, insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology 2007; 45: 807.
  • 30
    Missiha S, Heathcote JCanadian Pegasys Expanded Access Group et al. Impact of Asian race on response to combination therapy with peginterferon alfa-2a and ribavirin in chronic hepatitis C. Am J Gastroenterol 2007; 102: 21818.
    Direct Link:
  • 31
    Walsh MJ, Jonsson JR, Richardson MM, et al. Non-response to antiviral therapy is associated with obesity and increased hepatic expression of suppressor of cytokine signalling 3 (SOCS-3) in patients with chronic hepatitis C, viral genotype 1. Gut 2006; 55: 52935.
  • 32
    Diago M, Castellano G, García-Samaniego J, et al. Association of pretreatment serum interferon gamma inducible protein 10 levels with sustained virological response to peginterferon plus ribavirin therapy in genotype 1 infected patients with chronic hepatitis C. Gut 2006; 55: 3749.
  • 33
    Sarasin-Filipowicz M, Oakeley EJ, Duong FH, et al. Interferon signaling and treatment outcome in chronic hepatitis C. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2008; 105: 70349.
  • 34
    Chen L, Borozan I, Feld J, et al. Hepatic gene expression discriminates responders and nonresponders in treatment of chronic hepatitis C viral infection. Gastroenterology 2005; 128: 143744.
  • 35
    Feld JJ, Nanda S, Huang Y, et al. Hepatic gene expression during treatment with peginterferon and ribavirin: identifying molecular pathways for treatment response. Hepatology 2007; 46: 154863.
  • 36
    Asselah T, Bieche I, Narguet S, et al. Liver gene expression signature to predict response to pegylated interferon plus ribavirin combination therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Gut 2008; 57: 51624.
  • 37
    Sylvestre DL, Clements BJ. Adherence to hepatitis C treatment in recovering heroin users maintained on methadone. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2007; 19: 7417.
  • 38
    Kraus MR, Schäfer A, Schöttker K, et al. Therapy of interferon-induced depression in chronic hepatitis C with citalopram: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Gut 2008; 57: 5316.
  • 39
    McHutchison JG, Dusheiko GTPL102357 Study Group et al. Eltrombopag for thrombocytopenia in patients with cirrhosis associated with hepatitis C. N Engl J Med 2007; 357: 222736.
  • 40
    Taliani G, Gemignani Gand the Nonresponder Retreatment Group et al. Pegylated interferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin in the retreatment of interferon-ribavirin nonresponder patients. Gastroenterology 2006; 130: 10981106.
  • 41
    Jensen DM, Freilich B, Andreone P, et al. Pegylated interferon alfa-2a (40kd) plus ribavirin (RBV) in prior non-responders to pegylated interferon alfa-2b (12kd)/RBV: final efficacy and safety outcomes of the REPEAT study. Hepatology 2007; 46 (Suppl. 1): 80A, abstract # LB4.
  • 42
    Cornberg M, Hadem J, Herrmann E, et al. Treatment with daily consensus interferon (CIFN) plus ribavirin in non-responder patients with chronic hepatitis C: a randomized open-label pilot study. J Hepatol 2006; 44: 291301.
  • 43
    Bacon B, Regev A, Ghalib RH, et al. The DIRECT trial (daily-dose consensus interferon and Ribavirin: efficacy of combined therapy): treatment of non-responders to previous pegylated interferon plus ribavirin: Sustained virologic response data. Hepatology 2007; 46 (Suppl. 1): 311A, abstract #168.
  • 44
    Bain VG, Kaita KD, Yoshida EM, et al. A phase 2 study to evaluate the antiviral activity, safety, and pharmacokinetics of recombinant human albumin–interferon alfa fusion protein in genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C patients. J Hepatol 2006; 44: 6718.
  • 45
    Nelson D, Rustgi V, Balan V, et al. A phase 2 study of Albuferon in combination with ribavirin in non-responders to prior interferon therapy for chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology 2005; 42 (Suppl. 1): 278A.
  • 46
    Pockros PJ, Jeffers L, Afdhal N, et al. Final results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the antifibrotic efficacy of interferon-gamma1b in chronic hepatitis C patients with advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis. Hepatology 2007; 45: 56978.
  • 47
    Romero-Gomez M, Diago M, Andrade RJ, et al. Interim analysis from TRIC-1. A study of Metformin with peginterferon alfa-2a and ribavirin in treatment naïve genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C with insulin resistance. J Hepatol 2008; 48 (Suppl. 2): S375.
  • 48
    Hickman IJ, Jonsson JR, Prins JB, et al. Modest weight loss and physical activity in overweight patients with chronic liver disease results in sustained improvements in alanine amniotransferate, fasting insulin and quality of life. Gut 2004; 53: 4139.
  • 49
    Di Bisceglie AM, Shiffman ML, Everson GT, et al. Prolonged antiviral therapy with peginterferon to prevent complications of advanced liver disease associated with hepatitis C: results of the Hepatitis C Antiviral Long-Term Treatment Against Cirrhosis (HALT-C) trial. Hepatology 2007; 46: 80A, abstract #LB1.
  • 50
    Afdhal NH, Levine R, Brown Jr R, et al. Colchicine versus peg-interferon alfa-2b long term therapy: results of the 4 year co-pilot trial. J Hepatol 2008; 48 (Suppl. 2): S4.
  • 51
    Poordad F, Shiffman M, Sherman K, et al. A study of telaprevir (TVR) with peginterferon alfa-2a (P) and ribavirin (R) in subjects with well-documented prior P/R null response, non-response or relapse: preliminary results. J Hepatol 2008; 48 (Suppl. 2): S374, abstract #1000.
  • 52
    Schiff E, Poordad FF, Jacobson IM, et al. Role of interferon response during re-treatment of null responders with Boceprevir combination therapy: results of phase II trial. 221. Digestive Disease Week 2008, abstract #162.
  • 53
    Klade CS, Wedemeyer H, Berg T, et al. Therapeutic vaccination of chronic hepatitis C nonresponder patients with the peptide vaccine IC41. Gastroenterology 2008; 134: 138595.
  • 54
    McHutchison JG, Bacon BR, Gordon SC, et al. Phase 1B, randomized, double-blind, dose-escalation trial of CPG 10101 in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus. Hepatology 2007; 46: 13419.
  • 55
    Veldt BJ, Chen W, Heathcote EJ, et al. Increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma among patients with hepatitis C cirrhosis and diabetes mellitus. Hepatology 2008; 47: 185662.
  • 56
    Chen CL, Yang HI, Yang WS, et al. Metabolic factors and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma by chronic hepatitis B/C infection: a follow-up study in Taiwan. Gastroenterology 2008; 135: 11121.
  • 57
    Fujita Y, Shibata A, Ogimoto I, et al. The effect of interaction between hepatitis C virus and cigarette smoking on the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. Br J Cancer 2006; 94: 7379.
  • 58
    Tanaka K, Hara M, Sakamoto T, et al. Inverse association between coffee drinking and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma: a case–control study in Japan. Cancer Sci 2007; 98: 214.