• 1
    Fernandez H, Banks G, Smith R. Ribavirin: a clinical overview. Eur J Epidemiol 1986; 2: 114.
  • 2
    Murata Y, Falsey AR. Respiratory syncytial virus infection in adults. Antiviral Ther 2007; 12: 65970.
  • 3
    Glanville AR, Scott AI, Morton JM, et al. Intravenous ribavirin is a safe and cost-effective treatment for respiratory syncytial virus infection after lung transplantation. J Heart Lung Transplant 2005; 24: 21149.
  • 4
    Snell NJ. Ribavirin-current status of a broad spectrum antiviral agent. Expert Opin Pharmacother 2001; 2: 131724.
  • 5
    McHutchinson JG, Gordon SC, Schiff ER, et al. Interferon alfa-2b alone or in combination with ribavirin as initial treatment for chronic hepatitis C. N Engl J Med 1998; 339: 148592.
  • 6
    Fried MW, Shiffman ML, Reddy KR, et al. Combination of peginterferon alfa-2a (40 kd) plus ribavirin in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. N Engl J Med 2002; 347: 97582.
  • 7
    Manns MP, McHutchinson JG, Gordon SC, et al. Peginterferon-alfa-2b plus ribavirin compared with interferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin for initial treatment of chronic hepatitis C: a randomized trial. Lancet 2001; 358: 95865.
  • 8
    Patterson JL, Fernandez-Larson R. Molecular mechanisms of action of ribavirin. Rev Infect Dis 1990; 12: 113946.
  • 9
    Cameron CE, Castro C. The mechanism of action of ribavirin: lethal mutagenesis of RNA virus genomes mediated by the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Curr Opin Infect Dis 2001; 14: 75764.
  • 10
    Potter CW, Phair JP, Vodinelich L, Fenton R, Jennings R. Antiviral, immunosuppressive and antitumour effects of ribavirin. Nature 1976; 259: 4967.
  • 11
    Bodenheimer Jr HC, Lindsay KL, Davis GL, et al. Tolerance and efficacy of oral ribavirin treatment of chronic hepatitis C: a multicenter trial. Hepatology 1997; 26: 4737.
  • 12
    Herrmann E, Lee JH, Marinos G, Modi M, Zeuzem S. Effect of ribavirin on hepatitis C viral kinetics in patients treated with pegylated interferon. Hepatology 2003; 37: 13518.
  • 13
    Ferenci P, Fried MW, Shiffman ML, et al. Predicting sustained virological responses in chronic hepatitis C patients treated with peginterferon alfa-2a (40KD)/ribavirin. J Hepatol 2005; 43: 45371.
  • 14
    Bronowicki JP, Ouzan D, Asselah T, et al. Effect of ribavirin in genotype 1 patients with hepatitis C responding to pegylated interferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin. Gastroenterology 2006; 131: 10408.
  • 15
    Hadziyannis SJ, Sette Jr H, Morgan TR, et al. Peginterferon-alfa 2a and ribavirin combination therapy in chronic hepatitis C: a randomized study of treatment duration and ribavirin dose. Ann Int Med 2004; 140: 34655.
  • 16
    Jacobson IM, Brown Jr RS, Freilich B, et al. Peginterferon alfa-2b and weight-based or flat-dose ribavirin in chronic hepatitis C patients: a randomized trial. Hepatology 2007; 46: 97181.
  • 17
    Shiffman ML. Side effects of medical therapy for chronic hepatitis C. Ann Hepatol 2004; 3: 510.
  • 18
    Glue P. The clinical pharmacology of ribavirin. Semin Liver Dis 1999; 19 (Suppl. 1): 1724.
  • 19
    De Franceschi L, Fattovich G, Turrini F, et al. Hemolytic anemia induced by ribavirin therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection: role of membrane oxidative damage. Hepatology 2000; 31: 9971004.
  • 20
    Maddrey WC. Safety of combination interferon alfa-2b/ribavirin therapy in chronic hepatitis C-relapsed and treatment-naive patients. Semin Liver Dis 1999; 19 (Suppl. 1): 6775.
  • 21
    McHutchison JG, Manns MP, Brown Jr RS, et al. Strategies for managing anemia in hepatitis C patients undergoing antiviral therapy. Am J Gastroenterol 2007; 102: 8809.
    Direct Link:
  • 22
    McHutchison JG, Manns M, Patel K, et al. Adherence to combination therapy enhances sustained response in genotype-1-infected patients with chronic hepatitis C. Gastroenterology 2002; 123: 10619.
  • 23
    Shiffman ML. Optimizing the current therapy for chronic hepatitis C virus: peginterferon and ribavirin dosing and the utility of growth factors. Clin Liver Dis 2008; 12: 487505.
  • 24
    Shiffman ML, Ghany MG, Morgan TR, et al. Impact of reducing peginterferon alfa-2a and ribavirin dose during retreatment in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Gastroenterology 2007; 132: 10312.
  • 25
    Reddy KR, Shiffman ML, Morgan TR, et al. Impact of ribavirin dose reductions in hepatitis C virus genotype 1 patients completing peginterferon alfa-2a/ribavirin treatment. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2006; 5: 1249.
  • 26
    Pockros PJ, Shiffman ML, Schiff ER, et al. Epoetin alfa improves quality of life in anemic HCV-infected patients receiving combination therapy. Hepatology 2004; 40: 14508.
  • 27
    Del Rio RA, Post AB, Singer ME. Cost-effectiveness of hematologic growth factors for anemia occurring during hepatitis C combination therapy. Hepatology 2006; 44: 1598606.
  • 28
    Shiffman ML, Salvatore J, Hubbard S, et al. Treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus genotype 1 with peginterferon, ribavirin, and epoetin alpha. Hepatology 2007; 46: 3719.
  • 29
    Alvarez D, Dieterich DT, Brau N, et al. Zidovudine use but not weight-based ribavirin dosing impacts anaemia during HCV treatment in HIV-infected persons. J Viral Hepat 2006; 13: 6839.
  • 30
    Shiffman ML, Suter F, Bacon BR, et al. Peginterferon alfa-2a and ribavirin for 16 or 24 weeks in HCV genotype 2 or 3. N Engl J Med 2007; 357: 12434.
  • 31
    Wu JZ, Yeh LT, Lin CC, Hong Z. Conversion of viramidine to ribavirin in vivo by adenosine deaminase and its inhibition by 2′-deoxycoformycin. Antiviral Chem Chemother 2006; 17: 339.
  • 32
    Gish R, Nelson D, Arora S, et al. Virologic response and safety outcomes in therapy-naïve patients treated for chronic hepatitis C with viramadine in combination with pegylated interferon alfa-2a. J Hepatol 2005; 42 (Suppl. 2): 39.
  • 33
    Benhamou Y, Pockros P, Rodriquez-Torres M, et al. The safety and efficacy of viramadine plus pegylated interferon alfa-2b versus ribavirin plus pegylated interferon alfa-2b in therapy naive patients infected with chronic HCV. Phase 3 results. J Hepatol 2006; 44 (Suppl. 2): S273.
  • 34
    Pockros PJ, Nelson D, Godofsky E, et al. R1626 plus peginterferon alfa-2a provides potent suppression of hepatitis C virus RNA and significant antiviral synergy in combination with ribavirin. Hepatology 2008; 48: 38597.
  • 35
    Lawitz E, Rodriguez-Torres M, Muir AJ, et al. Antiviral effects and safety of telaprevir, peginterferon alfa-2a, and ribavirin for 28 days in hepatitis C patients. J Hepatol 2008; 49: 1639.
  • 36
    Mchutchison JG, Everson GT, Gordon SC, et al. Prove 1: results from a phase 2 study of telaprevir with peginterferon alfa-2a and ribavirin in treatment-naïve subjects with hepatitis C. J Hepatol 2008; 48 (Suppl. 2): S4.
  • 37
    Dusheiko GM, Hezode C, Pol S, et al. Treatment of chronic hepatitis C with telaprevir in combination with peginterferon alfa-2a with or without ribavirin: further interim analysis results of the prove 2 study. J Hepatol 2008; 48 (Suppl. 2): S26.
  • 38
    Kwo P, Lawitz E, McCone J, et al. Interm results from HCV sprint-1: RVR/EVR from phase 2 study of boceprevir plus pegintron (peginterferon alfa-2b)/ribavirin in treatment naïve subjects with genotype-1 CHC. J Hepatol 2008; 48 (Suppl. 2): S372.
  • 39
    McHutchison JG, Shiffman ML, Terrault N, et al. A phase 2b study of telaprevir with peginterferon alfa-2a and ribavirin in hepatitis C genotype 1 null and partial responders and relapsers following a prior course of peginterferon alfa-2a/b and ribavirin therapy. Prove 3 interim results. Hepatology 2008; 48 (suppl): 431A.