• 1
    Lavanchy D. The global burden of hepatitis C. Liver Int 2009; 29 (Suppl. 1): 7481.
  • 2
    CDC Compressed Mortality File. Available at (accessed 1 June 2008).
  • 3
    National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 1988–2006. Available at (accessed 1 June 2008).
  • 4
    Armstrong G, Wasley A, Simard E, et al. Prevalence of HCV infection in the United States. Ann Int Med 2006; 144: 70514.
  • 5
    Wise M, Bialek S, Bell B, et al. Changing trends in HCV-related mortality in USA. Hepatology 2008; 47: 112835.
  • 6
    Davila J, Morgan R, Shaib Y, et al. HCV and increasing incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma: a population-based study. Gastroenterology 2004; 127: 137280.
  • 7
    Davis G, Albright J, Cook S. Projecting future complications of chronic hepatitis C in United States. Gastroenterology 2010; 139: 3318.
  • 8
    Manns MP, McHutchison JG, Gordon SC, et al. Peginterferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin compared with interferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin for initial treatment of chronic hepatitis C: a randomised trial. Lancet 2001; 358: 95865.
  • 9
    Fried MW, Shiffman ML, Reddy KR, et al. Peginterferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C virus infection. N Engl J Med 2002; 347: 97582.
  • 10
    Ge D, Fellay J, Thompson A, et al. Genetic variation in IL28B predicts hepatitis C treatment-induced viral clearance. Nature 2009; 461: 399401.
  • 11
    Suppiah V, Moldovan M, Ahlenstiel G, et al. IL28B is associated with response to chronic hepatitis C interferonalpha and ribavirin therapy. Nat Genet 2009; 41: 11004.
  • 12
    Tanaka Y, Nishida N, Sugiyama M, et al. Genome-wide association of IL28B with response to pegylated interferonalpha and ribavirin therapy for chronic hepatitis C. Nat Genet 2009; 41: 11059.
  • 13
    Thompson A, Muir A, Sulkowski M, et al. Interleukin-28B polymorphism improves viral kinetics and is the strongest pretreatment predictor of sustained virologic response in genotype 1 hepatitis C virus. Gastroenterology 2010; 139: 12029.
  • 14
    Fellay J, Thompson AJ, Ge D, et al. ITPA gene variants protect against anaemia in patients treated for chronic hepatitis C. Nature 2010; 464: 4058.
  • 15
    Jacobson I, McHutchison J, Dusheiko G, et al. Telaprevir in combination with peginterferon and ribavirin in genotype 1 HCV treatment-naïve patients: final results of phase 3 ADVANCE study. Hepatology 2010; 52: 427A.
  • 16
    Poordad F, McCone J, Bacon B, et al. Boceprevir (BOC) combined with Peginterferon alfa-2b/ribavirin (P/R) for Treatment-naïve patients with hepatitis C Virus (HCV) genotype (G) 1: SPRINT-2 final Results. Hepatology 2010; 52: 402A.
  • 17
    McHutchison JG, Manns MP, Muir AJ, et al. Telaprevir for previously treated chronic HCV infection. N Engl J Med 2010; 362: 1292303.
  • 18
    Berg T, McHutchison N. Adda, SVR with telaprevir, peginterferon alfa-2a and ribavirin in HCV patients with well-characterized prior null response, partial response, viral breakthrough or relapse after PR: rollover study 107. J Hepatol 2010; 52: S2.
  • 19
    Bruce R, Bacon B, Gordon S, et al. HCV RESPOND-2 final results: high sustained virologic response among Genotype 1 previous non-responders and relapsers to peginterferon/ribavirin when re-treated with Boceprevir plus pegintron (peginterferon alfa- 2b)/ribavirin. Hepatology 2010; 52: 430A.
  • 20
    Asselah T, Benhamou Y, Marcellin P. Protease and polymerase inhibitors for the treatment of hepatitis C. Liver Int 2009; 29 (Suppl. 1): 5767.
  • 21
    Foster G, Hézode C, Bronowicki JP, et al. Activity of telaprevir alone or in combination with peginterferon alfa-2a and ribavirin in treatment-naïve, genotype 2 and 3, hepatitis C patients: Final Results of Study C209. J Hepatol 2010; 52: S27.
  • 22
    Tan H, Rajyaguru S, Wu T, et al. Combination of NS3/4a protease inhibitor ITMN-191 (R7227) with the active moiety of the NS5b inhibitors R1626 or R7128 enhances viral clearance and reduces emergence of drug-resistant variants. Hepatology 2008; 48: 1153A.
  • 23
    Koev G, Dekhtyar T, Han L, et al. Antiviral interactions of an HCV polymerase inhibitor with an HCV protease inhibitor or interferon in vitro. Antiviral Res 2007; 73: 7883.
  • 24
    Zennou V, Lam A, Keilman M, et al. Combination of two complementary mucleotide analogues PSI7977 and PSI938 effectively clears wild type and NS5b-S282T HCV replicons. J Hepatol 2010; 52: S400.
  • 25
    Olsen DB, Carroll SS, Handt L, et al. HCV antiviral activity andresistance analysis in chronically infected chimpanzees treated with NS3/4A protease and NS513 polymerase inhibitors. J Hepatol 2007; 46: S298.
  • 26
    Gane E, Roberts S, Stedman C, et al. Interferon-free oral combination therapy with a nucleoside polymerase inhibitor (RG7128) and protease inhibitor (danoprevir/RG7227) for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C genotype 1 infection: results of the INFORM-1 trial. Lancet 2010; 376: 146775.
  • 27
    Foy E, Li K, Wang C, et al. Regulation of interferon regulatory factor-3 by the hepatitis C virus serine protease. Science 2003; 300: 11458.
  • 28
    Lagging M, Romero AI, Westin J, et al. IP-10 predicts viral response and therapeutic outcome in difficult-to-treat patients with HCV genotype 1 infection. Hepatology 2006; 44: 161725.
  • 29
    Shulman N, Smith P, Ipe D, et al. Reduction of IP10, a biomarker of endogenous IFN, during therapy with two direct-acting antiviral agents (DAA-combo) in INFORM−1 suggests that reducing HCV RNA with IFN−free therapy may enhance response to Interferons. 16th International Symposium on HCV and Related Viruses, October 3–7 2009, Nice, France.
  • 30
    Asselah T, Bieche I, Narguet S, et al. Liver gene expression signature to predict response to pegylated interferon plus ribavirin combination therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Gut 2008; 57: 51624.
  • 31
    Kuntzen T, Timm J, Berical A, et al. Naturally occurring dominant resistant mutations to HCV protease and polymerase inhibitors in treatment-naive patients. Hepatology 2008; 48: 176978.
  • 32
    Hézode C, Forestier N, Dusheiko G, et al. Telaprevir and peginterferon with or without ribavirin for chronic HCV infection. N Engl J Med 2009; 360: 18350.